Anabolic steroidTestosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic world anabolic number one pro stack. In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostateas well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair. Testosterone is a steroid from masa androstane class containing a keto and hydroxyl groups at the three and seventeen positions respectively. It is biosynthesized in several steps from cholesterol and is converted in the liver to inactive metabolites. On mads, in anabolic mass wikipedia males, levels of testosterone are about 7 to anabolic mass wikipedia times as great anabolic mass wikipedia anqbolic adult females. In addition to its role as a natural hormone, testosterone is used as a medicationfor instance in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men and breast cancer in women. It is also used illicitly to enhance physique and performancefor instance in athletes.
Bodybuilding - Wikipedia
Bodybuilding supplements are dietary supplements commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding , weightlifting, mixed martial arts, and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass. The intent is to increase muscle, increase body weight, improve athletic performance, and for some sports, to simultaneously decrease percent body fat so as to create better muscle definition.
Among the most widely used are high protein drinks , branched-chain amino acids BCAA , glutamine , arginine , essential fatty acids , creatine , HMB ,  and weight loss products. While many bodybuilding supplements are also consumed by the general public the frequency of use will differ when used specifically by bodybuilders. Athletes in ancient Greece were advised to consume large quantities of meat and wine.
A number of herbal concoctions and tonics have been used by strong men and athletes since ancient times across cultures to try to increase their strength and stamina. Later, bodybuilder Earle Liederman advocated the use of "beef juice" or "beef extract" basically, consomme as a way to enhance muscle recovery.
In s with recreational and competitive bodybuilding becoming increasingly popular Irvin P. Johnson began to popularize and market egg-based protein powders marketed specifically at bodybuilders and physical athletes. The s and s marked a dramatic increase in the growth of the bodybuilding supplement industry, fueled by widespread use of modern marketing techniques and a marked increase in recreational bodybuilding.
Under DSHEA, responsibility for determining the safety of the dietary supplements changed from government to the manufacturer and supplements no longer required approval from the U. Since that time manufacturers did not have to provide FDA with the evidence to substantiate safety or effectiveness unless a new dietary ingredient was added.
It is widely believed that the DSHEA further consolidated the position of the supplement industry and lead to additional product sales. While many of the claims are based on scientifically based physiological or biochemical processes, their use in bodybuilding parlance is often heavily colored by bodybuilding lore and industry marketing and as such may deviate considerably from traditional scientific usages of the terms.
In addition, ingredients listed have been found at times to be different from the contents. In , Consumer Reports reported unsafe levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in several of the protein powders that were tested. In the United States, the manufacturers of dietary supplements do not need to provide the Food and Drug Administration with evidence of product safety prior to marketing.
In a CBC investigative report found that protein spiking the addition of amino acid filler to manipulate analysis was not uncommon,  however many of the companies involved challenged these claims. The US FDA reports 50, health problems a year due to dietary supplements  and these often involve bodybuilding supplements. In addition to being potentially harmful, some have argued that there is little evidence to indicate any benefit to using bodybuilding protein or amino acid supplements.
The muscle mass increase was statistically significant but modest - averaging 0. Bodybuilders may supplement their diets with protein for reasons of convenience, lower cost relative to meat and fish products , ease of preparation, and to avoid the concurrent consumption of carbohydrates and fats.
In addition, some argue that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training and goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth;        however there is no scientific consensus for bodybuilders to consume more protein than the recommended dietary allowance. Protein powders are the most popular and may have flavoring added for palatability. The powder is usually mixed with water, milk or fruit juice and is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising or in place of a meal.
The sources of protein are as follows and differ in protein quality depending on their amino acid profile and digestibility:. Some nutritionists claim that osteoporosis may occur from excessive protein intake because protein can put pressure on the kidneys and lead to bone loss due to calcium leaching.
In addition to complete proteins, some supplements will contain protein that has been partially hydrolyzed to short peptide chains or individual amino acids such as branched-chain amino acids or glutamine.
Amino acids have been used by some companies to artificially inflate and falsify protein values in their product protein spiking. Many protein supplements explicitly indicate on the label that no protein spiking has occurred.
Some bodybuilders believe that amino acid supplements may benefit muscle development, but consumption of such supplements is unnecessary in a diet that already includes adequate protein intake. Prohormones are precursors to hormones and are most typically sold to bodybuilders as a precursor to the natural hormone testosterone. This conversion requires naturally occurring enzymes in the body.
Side effects are not uncommon, as prohormones can also convert further into DHT and estrogen. To deal with this, many supplements also have aromatase inhibitors and DHT blockers such as chrysin and 4-androstene-3,6,trione. To date most prohormone products have not been thoroughly studied, and the health effects of prolonged use are unknown. Although initially available over the counter, their purchase was made illegal without a prescription in the US in , and they hold similar status in many other countries.
They remain legal, however, in the United Kingdom and the wider European Union. Their use is prohibited by most sporting bodies. Creatine is an organic acid naturally occurring in the body that supplies energy to muscle cells for short bursts of energy as required in lifting weights via creatine phosphate replenishment of ATP. A number of scientific studies have shown that creatine can improve strength,  energy,  muscle mass, and recovery times.
In addition, recent studies have also shown that creatine improves brain function. Creatine increases what is known as cell volumization by drawing water into muscle cells, making them larger. Creatine is sold in a variety of forms, including creatine monohydrate and creatine ethyl ester , amongst others. Though all types of creatine are sold for the same purposes, there are subtle differences between them, such as price and necessary dosage. Creatine monohydrate is regarded as a necessity by most bodybuilders.
Creatine monohydrate is the most cost-effective dietary supplement in terms of muscle size and strength gains. This can be accomplished by mixing powdered creatine with grape juice, lemonade, or many high glycemic index drinks.
Some studies have suggested that consumption of creatine with protein and carbohydrates can have a greater effect than creatine combined with either protein or carbohydrates alone. The inhibition of exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage by HMB is affected by the time that it is used relative to exercise.
Meal replacement products MRPs are either pre-packaged powdered drink mixes or edible bars designed to replace prepared meals.
MRPs are generally high in protein, low in fat, have a low to moderate amount of carbohydrates, and contain a wide array of vitamins and minerals. Some MRPs also contain flax oil powder as a source of essential fatty acids. MRPs can also contain other ingredients, such as creatine monohydrate , glutamine peptides, L-glutamine , calcium alpha-ketoglutarate , additional amino acids, lactoferrin , conjugated linoleic acid , and medium-chain triglycerides.
A sub-class of MRPs is colloquially known as "weight gainers", which are meal replacement products with a higher carbohydrate: Whereas a MRP will typically have a 0. A thermogenic is a broad term for any supplement that the manufacturer claims will cause thermogenesis , resulting in increased body temperature, increased metabolic rate, and consequently an increased rate in the burning of body fat and weight loss. Until almost every product found in this supplement category comprised the " ECA stack ": However, on February 6, the Food and Drug Administration FDA banned the sale of ephedra and its alkaloid , ephedrine, for use in weight loss formulas.
Several manufacturers replaced the ephedra component of the "ECA" stack with bitter orange or citrus aurantium containing synephrine instead of the ephedrine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. From experimental data to clinical evidence in sarcopenia". HMB is widely used as an ergogenic supplement by young athletes. B; Serrano, J; Hoofnagle, J. Br J Sports Med: Retrieved 1 December While federal law shut the door on regulation of dietary supplements, marketing hype may be leading the popular aids up courthouse steps". Retrieved December 11, Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved December 14, The team found the compound — N,alpha-diethylphenylethylamine — has a structure similar to methamphetamine, a powerful, highly addictive, illegal stimulant drug.
They believe the new compound is likely less potent than methamphetamine but greater than ephedrine. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. Journal of sports sciences. International journal of sport nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The impact on calcium and bone homeostasis in humans". The Journal of Nutrition. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Daniel; Lochmann, John D. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, 2nd ed. The utility of HMB does seem to be affected by timing of intake prior to workouts and dosage .
Experimental models, fatty infiltrations, and prevention". In conclusion, HMB treatment clearly appears to be a safe potent strategy against sarcopenia, and more generally against muscle wasting, because HMB improves muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance.
It seems that HMB is able to act on three of the four major mechanisms involved in muscle deconditioning protein turnover, apoptosis, and the regenerative process , whereas it is hypothesized to strongly affect the fourth mitochondrial dynamics and functions. For all these reasons, HMB should be routinely used in muscle-wasting conditions especially in aged people.
HMB, a derivative of leucine, prevents muscle damage and increases muscle strength by reducing exercise-induced proteolysis in muscles and also helps in increasing lean body mass.
The meta analysis studies and the individual studies conducted support the use of HMB as an effective aid to increase body strength, body composition, and to prevent muscle damage during resistance training.