Top 20 Steroids Questions!Anabolic steroids are drugs derived from the male hormone testosterone. They promote muscle growth and increase lean mass. Although anabolic steroids have many approved medical uses, they are abused by questionnaier athletes and others seeking to improve performance and physical appearance. These nonmedical uses are illegal and carry anabolic steroid questionnaire health hazards. Anabolic steroids are taken as pills or injected.
Anabolic steroids Survey
Considering the recent popularity of bodybuilding and the apparent spread of anabolic androgenic steroid AAS use amongst bodybuilding enthusiasts in Kuwait, there is a relative lack of scientific investigation into the use, knowledge and attitudes towards AAS amongst the population at risk of abusing it.
Therefore, this study aims to investigate the frequency, knowledge, attitudes and practice of AAS use amongst male fitness centre attendees in Kuwait. A cross sectional survey utilizing a self-administered questionnaire was used. Information on demographics as well as knowledge and attitude about and towards the use of AAS was included in the questionnaire.
Ten fitness centres in Kuwait were randomly selected and questionnaires were distributed to all individuals leaving each centre on randomly selected days and periods of time for each centre. Of the responders, The 19—25 age group had the highest occurrence In contrast with non-users, most The usage of AAS is high amongst male gym users in Kuwait and is likely to present an additional burden to the health service.
An effective initiative to minimize the burden of AAS abuse should focus on changing the attitudes towards AAS rather than spreading awareness of their side effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids AAS are synthetic derivatives of testosterone having pronounced anabolic properties and relatively weak androgenic properties [ 2 ]. They are used clinically for the treatment of conditions characterized by abnormally low production of testosterone, or muscle wasting [ 4 ].
However, since the s, AAS have been used by professional body-builders and increasingly by young adults to improve physical appearance [ 4 , 20 ]. These non-medical uses of AAS are associated with significant health risks such as cardiovascular, hepatic, endocrine, psychosocial and psychiatric disorders as well as death [ 8 , 19 ]. As regards practice habits, a recent internet-based survey has reported that the majority of users self-administer injectable AAS and reported subjective side-effects for AAS usage A study of Canadian college students showed that AAS users were taking a variety of substance concurrently to enhance performance including caffeine, pain killers, stimulants and beta-blockers [ 9 ].
Several studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of people exercising in fitness centers toward the use of AAS. Moreover, it showed that AAS users trained more often at gyms, drank more alcohol and used narcotic drugs more often than other male adolescents [ 11 ]. In a recent study in Kuwait, the prevalence of AAS users amongst gym members was The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of AAS use amongst male fitness centres attendees in Kuwait.
This was a cross-sectional survey of males attending fitness centres in Kuwait. These fitness centres were randomly selected from the national telephone directory. Self-administered questionnaires were then distributed to all individuals leaving each centre on a randomly selected day and period of time which was different for each centre.
The survey questionnaire content and structure was broadly based on that of [ 1 ], and included a sections on demographics, as well as questions related to knowledge and, attitudes about and towards use of AAS. Briefly, the questionnaire consisted of 34 questions which were distributed as follows: Questions were closed type and answer choices were a combination of Likert scale and tick-box types. When a questionnaire was returned, it was immediately checked for missing answers by the investigator and, if necessary, the participant was invited to complete them accordingly.
One question had a list of 11 undesirable effects, some associated with AAS use and some unrelated to AAS, which was used to test the knowledge about the side effects of AAS. Participation in the study was voluntary and all participants signed a consent form prior to participating in the study. Chi-square test was used to test for significant differences. In this sample of responders, the age group at which AAS were first used was 14—18 years In our sample, 4.
Distribution of participants based on history and intention of using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. A high percentage of users Differences amongst participants based on history and intention of using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. A small minority of AAS users 6. Nearly all AAS users On the other hand, only Several reasons for not using AAS were reported. When analyzed, being harmful to health was the most important single reason for not using AAS, and having not felt the need to use AAS was the second.
A total of Amongst non-users with no intentions to use, Both oral and injectable forms of AAS were used in approximately equal frequency, and a combination of oral and injectable AAS was the most common practice The frequency of smoking was significantly higher Users obtained AAS from a variety of sources as follows: Fifty nine percent of AAS users and This study investigated the frequency, knowledge, attitudes and practice of AAS use in Kuwait amongst male fitness centre attendees.
The frequency of AAS users was Highest frequency of first time AAS usage was in the age group 19—25 years This finding is somewhat similar to that reported by others in the MENA region [ 1 , 10 , 17 ]; however, in Sweden age of first usage is lower 16—17 years [ 16 ].
Considering that AAS users were as educated as non-users, it does not appear that the level of education was a factor in the decision to use AAS in this study. AAS users and non-users with intentions to use believed more strongly in the benefits of AAS and were less worried about the risks associated with their use.
Overall, users perceived that the benefits to muscle bulk outweighed the risks of negative side-effects. These findings are in broad agreement with those reported in other studies of gym users and athletes [ 1 , 10 , 14 , 15 ]. It is interesting that only Most of non-users with no intentions to use AAS have joined the gym for reasons other than body-building, and most of them reported they have not felt the need to use AAS to achieve their desired goal in the gym.
This piece of information could be crucial for any effort toward controlling the spread of AAS abuse. These results are in agreement with those reported by previous studies [ 2 , 3 , 9 , 11 , 13 ]. Fifty nine percent of users reported believing they have enough information regarding AAS.
Deficient knowledge about complications of AAS was also reported in previous studies [ 12 ]. Interestingly, non-users were as much uninformed as users about the side effects of AAS, even though a significantly larger percentage of them thought they are harmful to health.
Supporting the conclusion that spreading awareness about the side effects of AAS may not be the most effective strategy for limiting their abuse. These results show that the attitudes towards AAS do not correspond with knowledge about their harms, and the attitudes towards AAS are more strongly associated with their use than is knowledge of the potential harms.
The reported main source for acquiring AAS was gym coaches Furthermore, it is of concern that even though AAS are illegal in Kuwait, a significant percentage of users This is all the more significant because oral route of administration was common which is more hepatotoxic , with This may present an additional burden to the health service by a relatively young group of adults.
From a regulatory perspective, there may be a need to consider tightening the control of distribution of AAS. The main limitation of this study was that participants were self-selected insofar as When asked about the reason for not completing the questionnaire virtually all of them replied that they felt it was too long.
However, there was no feedback that indicated preferential participation by users compared to non-users or vice versa. Furthermore, the age was given as age brackets, therefore the means and standard deviations could not be calculated. On the other hand, the main strength of this study is that, in the analyses, it factors in the intentions to use AAS in the future at the point when the data was collected.
This gives more accurate picture of the relationship between AAS use and other parameters. The study concludes that the beliefs and attitudes regarding the effects of AAS on muscle and the harmfulness of AAS are significantly different between users and non-users, this is expected and was already established in the previous studies. However, this study also shows that the presence of intentions to use AAS is associated with attitudes similar to those of AAS users, this suggests that the attitude precedes and anticipates, and therefore is the cause and not the result of, the decision to use AAS.
From our results, it appears that knowledge or ignorance about the potential harms of AAS is not a major factor influencing the use of AAS. The magnitude of concerns about the actual likelihood and the severity of the side effects of AAS are rather far more influential.
In other words, the factors that leads an individual to use or not use AAS are mainly whether or not that person wants to build bulky muscles, and whether or not he believes AAS are crucial for that purpose. Moreover, peer effect appears to be strikingly important in the misuse of AAS. Given that smoking, as well as the use of multiple substances that are generally considered to be a risk to health, are more frequent amongst AAS users, it is reasonable to suggest that a personality that is associated with addictions or risk taking behaviour may also be associated with AAS use.
The results of this study lead us towards a different conclusion from what was intuitively assumed and usually expected, and from what was recommended in some previous studies. Namely, education regarding the side effects of AAS is not the crucial area to address when effectively decreasing the abuse of AAS is desired. This, however, agrees with the conclusions of some previous publications [ 5 , 6 ]. We would like to thank the following: Ahmad M Alshammari, M. IA came up with the research question, researched the literature, designed the methodology, participated in the distribution and collection of the survey, entered the data, did the statistical analysis, interpreted the results, and wrote most of the paper.
JRA reviewed the literature and assisted in interpreting the results and constructing the tables and graphs. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. Published online Aug Ibrahim Alsaeed and Jarrah R. Received Feb 16; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background Considering the recent popularity of bodybuilding and the apparent spread of anabolic androgenic steroid AAS use amongst bodybuilding enthusiasts in Kuwait, there is a relative lack of scientific investigation into the use, knowledge and attitudes towards AAS amongst the population at risk of abusing it.
Methods A cross sectional survey utilizing a self-administered questionnaire was used. Conclusion The usage of AAS is high amongst male gym users in Kuwait and is likely to present an additional burden to the health service. Sport medicine, Anabolic androgenic steroids, Substance abuse, Public health.