9 Benefits of Human Growth Hormone, Including More Muscle & Less FatSome people turn to a hu,an called human growth hormone HGH in hopes that it will keep them feeling and looking youthful. But experts say that hope is unfounded. And worse, these products can be harmful. HGH, produced by the pituitary gland, spurs growth in children and adolescents. It hogh helps to regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolismand high human growth hormone heart function. Produced synthetically, HGH is the high human growth hormone corticosteroid lung function in a number of prescription drugs and in other products available widely over the Internet. Synthetic human growth hormone was developed in and approved by the FDA for specific uses in children and adults.
HGH (Human Growth Hormone): Uses and Side Effects
Thirty-six prepubertal short SGA children were the subjects of this study. In group B, maximum GH levels increased from During the profile i. It has been demonstrated that GH treatment of short children born SGA results in a normalization of height during childhood, as well as a normal adult height for most of them 6 , Recently, Van Pareren et al. It has been shown that administration of GH to healthy and GH-deficient adults results in a dose-dependent rise of serum GH levels 12 , Concern has been expressed regarding the possible harmful effects of high serum GH and IGF-I levels for many years 14 , Recent epidemiological studies on risk of breast 16 , prostate 17 , and colon 18 cancer have indicated that serum levels of IGF-I in the upper tertile to quintile are associated with an increased risk of cancer.
The study group comprised 36 prepubertal short children born SGA. Children were included according to the following criteria: Children with endocrine or metabolic disorders, chromosomal defects, syndromes, and growth failure caused by other conditions e. The study was approved by the medical ethics committees of the participating centers, and written informed consent was obtained from the parents. Overnight GH profiles were performed in all subjects at baseline and after 6 months of GH treatment.
Children were admitted to the hospital, and blood for determination of serum GH levels was withdrawn from an indwelling venous catheter at min intervals between and h. Children followed their normal eating pattern until midnight. During the second GH profile, at 6 months after start of GH therapy, the daily sc GH injection was given under observation at h, 1 h after onset of the GH profile.
The intraassay and interassay CV were 3. All overnight GH profiles were analyzed using the Pulsar program The AUC 0 was divided by three to rescale time into units of 1 h, and was similar when calculated by the trapezoidal method.
Serum levels of GH were expressed in milliunits per liter. The serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were converted into sd scores to adjust for age and sex, using reference values for healthy children with normal stature determined in the same laboratory Analyses were carried out using the computer statistical package SPSS version Results are expressed as the median interquartile range , unless indicated otherwise.
The Mann-Whitney U test was used for differences between groups. Differences between points in time were tested by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. To test for linear relationships between continuous variables, partial correlations were estimated for group A and B together, with adjustment for GH dosage.
Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess multivariable relationships. Factors showing a significant partial correlation with the 6-month change in height sd score were entered into the model. Only results of the best fitting model in terms of R-squared are shown. Table 1 lists the baseline clinical data of both GH dosage groups. Children of both groups A and B had comparable baseline characteristics.
Two children of group B had genetically proven Silver-Russell syndrome. Six children in group A and six children in group B were born preterm. Table 2 lists the characteristics of the overnight GH profiles for both GH dosage groups at baseline and after 6 months. All values were significantly higher in group B compared with group A. For example, in group B, mean GH levels increased from 9.
Figure 1 depicts the mean serum GH levels of both groups at each time point during the overnight GH profiles at baseline and after 6 months. Figure 2 shows the individual mean GH levels during the overnight GH profiles for each child, with the children ranked per group. During GH treatment, a wide interindividual variation in mean GH levels was seen. Two subjects in group A and one in group B showed strikingly high mean serum GH levels compared with the other children of their group.
Partial correlations were made for group A and B together, with adjustment for GH dose. No significant partial correlation was found between gain in height sd score and the following parameters: Using multiple regression, the following variables were the best predictors of the 6-month increase in height sd score during GH treatment: GH dose group B vs.
Comparable individual variations in GH levels after sc GH injection have previously been reported in GH-deficient children and were attributed to different mechanisms of the degradation of GH at the site of injection or in the circulation Two children in group A and one child in group B had extremely high GH levels compared with the other children in the groups. Higher serum GH levels have been described when the GH injection was administered im instead of sc It is possible that the GH administration in these two children was not completely sc as in the other children, but partly intramuscular at the time of the overnight profile.
Their IGF-I levels were not different compared with the other children. Previous studies concerning GH levels during GH treatment have mainly been performed in healthy adults 24 , 25 , GH-deficient patients 12 , 23 , 26 , and in girls with Turner syndrome This might partly explain the higher mean and maximum GH levels in our study group, which consisted of young prepubertal SGA children with a reported lower fat mass and a lower BMI sd score than their peers In the high-dose group, mean serum GH levels were At the end of the overnight GH-profiles, 11 h after the sc GH injection, serum GH returned to near baseline levels in both groups.
For comparison, overnight GH levels in normal prepubertal boys and girls are Concern has been expressed regarding the possible detrimental effects of persistently high serum levels of GH and IGF-I 14 , Serum IGF-I levels in the upper tertile to quintile have been associated with increased risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancer 16 — These findings were supported by Renehan et al.
As the majority of these children will be treated for 10—12 yr until adult height is reached, serum GH and IGF-I levels will be elevated during their childhood and adolescence. Children treated with the higher GH dose for many years might therefore be at increased risk for complications in later life.
However, there is still debate about the optimal GH dose for these children. In a recent epianalysis, it has been shown that height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term For that reason, there is no evidence to support long-term treatment with the higher GH dose for all short SGA children with regard to adult height improvement.
GH treatment could be started at a lower dose with individual adjustment based on growth response and IGF-I levels. Colette Wissink and Christel Bruinings, research nurses, for their technical assistance, and Dr. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Data are expressed as median interquartile range. View large Download slide. Growth in full-term small-for-gestational-age infants: Changes in serum insulin-like growth factor I IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels during growth hormone treatment in prepubertal short children born small for gestational age.
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Spontaneous growth hormone secretion increases during puberty in normal girls and boys. High-dose growth hormone GH treatment in non-GH-deficient children born small for gestational age induces growth responses related to pretreatment GH secretion and associated with a reversible decrease in insulin sensitivity. GH treatment and its effect on bone mineral density, bone maturation and growth in short children born small for gestational age: Association of a common polymorphism in the human GH1 gene with colorectal neoplasia.
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