In order to assist in dealing with the issue of substance abuse, Randox provide a comprehensive range of 10 drugs of abuse testing assays; Barbiturates. The reactions with a higher order cuprate (Me3CuLi24LiI43LiBr) and with the cyano Gilman reagent (Me2CuLi24LiCN42LiBr) produced a in slightly lower but. 1. National drug regulation · Open this . Retention samples · View the document · Specifications repertory · View the document · Reagents · View the.
and reagents Drugs 2.7.
Fortunately, it's not used for confirmation anymore. Thein and Landry's definition: Thin-layer chromatography testing is based on the differences in the migration rate of various substances through a porous supporting medium. The degree of migration and the color are characteristic of certain drugs.
Thin-layer chromatography can demonstrate the presence of a drug, but this procedure cannot specify the quantity of drug present. This technique is both time consuming and nonspecific, and provides only a positive or negative response.
Thin-layer chromatography is capable of detecting only a limited number of substances 12 to 24 hours after ingestion, resulting in a high number of false-negative results. Those who oppose drug testing provide numbers indicating a high level of false positives.
Those who favor drug testing provide numbers indicating high levels of accuracy. The fact is that accuracy varies widely from lab to lab. Generally speaking, NIDA labs are accurate. The vast majority of urine drug screens done these days conform to NIDA specs, and ALL testing associated with the government department of transportation, etc.
It is NIDA that decides what the "safe" cutoffs are to avoid false positives Despite what you might hear on the net, urinalysis, if done correctly, is a very accurate scientific procedure. NIDA keeps it's labs in check by sending positive and negative double-blind samples. Lab personnel does not know what samples came from NIDA. If the lab results are wrong, NIDA may take away the labs certification.
Some labs use cheap alternative methods to reduce expenses. Many human errors occur in labs and cause inaccurate results. Some are careless or irresponsible errors, and some errors are accidents. The only lab you should be concerned with is the one that is testing you. However, this is not a rule; employers can, and some do, use unusual procedures. Some employers use the RIA, and some use the hair test.
The government uses RIA. They may or may not supervise the subject. Olympic athletes must be monitored by courier after a competition. The courier stays with the athlete until the athlete urinates, with a time frame of up to sixty minutes. No laboratory process is completely free from error.
There are some false positives you should avoid if you're getting an EMIT test. Take this seriously; false positives run high. It would be too lengthy to list all of the false positives here. Jeff Nightbyrd's "Conquering the Urine Tests" pamphlet lists a majority of the false positives in detail. If you are clean, want to get back at the testing industry for conducting these absurd tests, and know that there will be a confirmation test, you could consume several false positives.
You will still pass the test as long as you didn't use any true positives. Decongestants and diet pills result in false positives for amphetamine use in one third of the test samples given to 40 of the countries leading laboratories. There are roughly over-the-counter drugs that cause false positives on the EMIT. Certain antibiotics like Amoxicillin are claimed to cause a positive for heroin or cocaine.
My expert source was unable to verify this, so I regret that there is some uncertainty here. Melanin is the brown pigment that protects your skin from UV rays. It was raised as a discrimination issue in the 's, and argued that melanin's molecular structure is similar to that of a THC metabolite. Subsequent research revealed flaws in the data. Melanin was found to have no effect on THC metabolite testing. Caine products like novacaine used in dentistry have been known to cause false positives for cocaine.
Some legal products actually contain small amounts of illegal chemicals. Poppy seeds, usually on breads, contain traces of morphine, and lead to positives for opiates. Harold Crossley, a nationally known chemical dependency expert, said you would have to eat poppy seed bagels to score a positive on a drug test. When taken into account that very few poppy seeds are sprinkled on bagels, you can see that poppy seeds from a hundred poppy seed bagels will easily fill a single large pastry.
Purim cookies, a Jewish food known as Hamantashen, may have five to six tablespoons of poppy seeds. A couple Purim cookies may cause a positive test. Orchic extract found in bull's balls will give a positive for anabolic steroid use. It is a legitimate substance that causes the test to imply that you abuse steroids.
Some people are object to commercial products because they "are just trying to cash in on the War on Drugs. Also, be aware that Texas outlawed products with the sole purpose of creating negative results on urine tests. I have put a c next to the commercial products to indicate that they are developed specifically for beating the test.
Those of you that oppose them or reside in Texas can skip items with a c. Companys that suck in thousands of High Times readers make so much, that a few returns from motivated users are insignificant.
People could even get away with offering a money-back guarentee for Goldenseal because all the water that people drink with Goldenseal causes most of them to pass. Some companys don't keep their word. A urinator who tested positive sent the lab results back, only to be told that marijuana is illegal. He was not even compensated for buying a failing product. Labs often do tests to find out if the sample is legitimate.
If a urine sample looks clear, the lab will suspect that it's watered down. They can't report it as positive, but they may reject the sample and inform your employer that you tried to beat the test. If this happens, the sample might as well be positive, because you won't get hired. Take vitamin B complex to color your urine yellow. Urine should be between 91 and 97 degrees. NIDA certified labs will verify temperature.
If it isn't, they will suspect you added water to the cup, or used substitution. Disposable pocket hand warmers sold in department stores will keep a urine sample warm, provided that the urine is in a condom or douche bag. Creatinine is a substance produced by vertebrates, and it shows up in urine. If someone substitutes their urine with something other than urine, like Mountain Dew, they will test negative for drugs.
The testee will most likely not get away with it because Mountain Dew contains zero creatinine, and labs test creatinine levels to ensure that the sample is valid.
Creatinine levels drop below normal when people dilute their urine. This tests to ensure that the subject didn't drink unusual amounts of water. This is almost never done. You should still be cautious because they do often use the inaccurate method of comparing your creatinine level during the drug test to an average.
Eating foods rich in protein like red meat will slightly increase creatinine levels. There is no significant variation between vegatarians and armavors, so the effect protein has is little. Sexual activity also raises creatinine levels. I doubt sexual activity influences creatinine level with much significance. However, a vegetarian that doesn't have much sex should be concerned. People who are drug-free sometimes lose their jobs for having too low of a creatinine level. Use caution when doping urine, pH is usually tested.
An unusual specific gravity indicates that a sample has been tampered with. Age can not be tested using urine. There is a rumor that approximate age can be detected in urine, and is tested in medical insurance exams. Gender cannot be tested either. As with age, there is a rumor that gender can be detected in urine, and is tested in medical insurance exams. It may be argued that a pregnancy test can be used to detect the gender of the urine provider, but the same test is used to detect prostate cancer in males.
Cleaning it out of your lipid tissue is very difficult. Many herbal products claim to clean out your system, yet they do nothing to remove THC byproducts from fat cells. A study was done in Germany in on 50 of the most common herbs used by people trying to pass the test. All 50 herbs failed to cause a negative. Unfortunately, this rumor will not die. Goldenseal plant is useless; yet it's the most common thing for people to use.
The only way to extract THC from fat cells is to exercise 5. Fat cells secrete fat with THC metabolites at a constant rate, regardless of what herbs you consume. Your urine will continue collecting THC metabolites from your bloodstream.
Be aware that creatinine levels are often tested, and will show that the sample has been diluted. Diluting your sample will also produce clear urine, with virtually no yellow color. They will assume that you've diluted your sample, and they may reject your sample on the basis of color alone.
It's only necessary to start drinking just before the test. Those who drown themselves in fluid days before a test are only causing unnecessary discomfort.
Those who stay up all night drinking don't have any better chance than one who drinks heavily first thing in the morning. Get up early if the test is early, but don't lose sleep over a test that's given in the daytime. Drink at least eight hefty glasses of fluid preferably water just prior to the test.
Many people start drinking water several days before the test; which is useless. Water only dilutes urine temporarily. Do not over do it; you can get water intoxication. People can actually overdose and even die from water intoxication.
It's very hard to do, and you'll vomit before anything gets serious. Eating red meat will boost creatinine levels.
If you eat a lot of red meat for the 3 days prior to the test, your creatinine level will be normal, and the lab won't know that you've diluted your urine sample. Color your sample yellow by taking 50 to milligrams of vitamin B. Many vitamins will work, but B-2 or B found in B-complex vitamins are the most effective, though some will argue that vitamin C is better.
This will also help if you plan to dope your sample section 7. This does not guarantee that dilution will work. Diluted samples have been red-flagged when specific gravity and creatinine levels are tested and below normal. If you're taking vitamins at the last minute, check to see if they're time release. If so, crush it up and consume the powder. Coloring your urine isn't all that important because it's normal for people to have clear urine even when they don't consume much fluid.
Diuretics make people urinate frequently. Coffee, cranberry juice, beer, iced tea, herbal tea, and Pepsi are all good diuretics. Grapes are known to be very good diuretics. Diuretics without caffeine or alcohol are recommended because caffeine and alcohol have negative side effects. Cranberry juice is also the cheapest. Herbal diuretics do better than home remedies like juices. This product used to be known as Test Free, but the name was changed. Ultimate Blend is a diuretic designed for the test, but works no better than other diuretics.
Ultimate Blend is sold by Zydot Unlimited Inc. This is a very new product, untested by a third party. It claims to absorb toxins, however, experts say that absorbing THC metabolites from fat cells is impossible. Here is a copy of the ad from Party Hut Enterprizes: It has been featured in High Times, and we are so confident of the results that we are offering a double-your-money-back guarantee for any failed results.
This is the most complete program for the cleanest results! Precleanse tm herbal capsules are enclosed in every box of Carbo Clean. This extra advantage helps you begin cleansing the evening before the deadline. B-Complex tablets complete the program.
Naturally Klean claims to clear any drug metabolites for a few hours after taking. Drink this shortly before the test. Naturally Klean was also listed as a drug screen in previous versions, but according to Nightbyrd, "it will do NOTHING to help you pass a urine test;" with the exception that it will dilute your urine. An anonymous user provided the ingredients list: Dandelion root is said to be the effective diuretic.
Goldenseal is a plant and you can get either the root or the leaves in pill form. It's also a liquid or tea. The liquid is rumored to absorb slower than the capsules. Goldenseal is a diuretic, but works no better than other diuretics. Taking Goldenseal is a foolish waste. This is an untested diuretic. Certa "has something to do with canning. Some people swear by it. Trouble is, it's always somebody else, a third party not present during the conversation, who uses it" Pearson.
I've heard rumors about people who smoked right up to the day before the test, consumed fruit pectin a canning substance similar to Certa , and passed the test. However, there hasn't been any tests to validate those claims. Will someone with a lab at their disposal please test this stuff?
Another herbal remedy like Goldenseal. The water you must take with it does everything Vales claims to do. Take an 80 milligram dose of prescription diuretic lasix furosemide. Prescription diuretics are the most potent. Some over the counter diuretics will color your urine blue and should be avoided. There is a myth that drinking vinegar will mask drugs; it won't.
However, vinegar lowers the pH of urine. Amphetamines are excreted up to 3 times as fast when urine is acidified. So vinegar could reduce the detection time period for amphetamines.
The effects on detection time are generally insignificant, and it in my opinion it really wouldn't be worth it to drink vinegar. If you do decide to drink vinegar, I hear it's easiest to get a shot glass and do it in shots.
It will cause diarrhea. There is a myth that taking phenylpropanolamine Dexatrim's active ingredient will work. In fact, Dexatrim is a false positive, and may work against you. The myth may have originated because Dexatrim was claimed to speed metabolism. However, the fact that Dextrim causes a positive makes it useless. A high fiber diet will help by redirecting fat soluble metabolites to the colon rather than bladder. Thus a person with a high fiber diet will excrete a majority of THC [metabolites] in the stool" anon1.
A fiber-based laxitive will also help by binding bile-acids. Fiber laxitives can alter one's bowel schedule and lead to dependancy. A recent method that's still under development is to take vitamin lecithin. This vitamin breaks down your stored fat and disperses it into your blood stream, to help clean out drugs that store themselves in lipid tissue, such as THC. To me it sounds as though this would work against you because by putting THC back in your blood stream, you are increasing metabolites in the urine.
Someone has suggested that you take vitamin lecithin on a regular basis to clean lipids of THC metabolites. Then quit before the test, which seems to make more sense. It MAY be useless to take lecithin supplements orally. I've been told that the digestive system breaks it down too much before entering the blood stream. Most aren't willing to take vitamins intravenously.
If you do decide to take lecithin, you might as well take B5 with it. B5 aids in the process of turning lecithin into acetylcholine. Another solution is to take nutrients which help the body manufacture lecithin.
Lipotrophics cause the liver to produce lecithin. A good source for this information is Austin Nutritional Research page. Don't give urine from your first urination of the day. It's the dirtiest, and can be heavily filled with metabolites.
Urinate a couple of times before giving a test sample. Also, don't give the beginning or end of the stream. Piss in the toilet, then quickly stop and go in the cup. Stop, and shift back to the toilet for the last portion. Only give a midstream sample. Just be sure to give 60 cc's. Athletes have a big advantage over normal civilians.
When fat is burned, THC byproducts are released into the blood. This is the only way to get THC metabolites out of lipid tissue. Due to an athletes high metabolic rate, THC moves through an athletes system significantly faster. Exercising between drug tests will clean THC metabolites from the system at a faster rate, thus lowering the detection period. It is important to stop burning fat cells near test time.
On test day, it doesn't matter what's in your lipid tissue. What's in your blood and urine does matter. Exercise increases the amount of THC metabolites in the urine; so quit exercising a week before the test. Be lazy, and eat big. This will put the body in an anabolic fat-storing stage. At this point, the "buried" THC metabolites won't escape and go the the urine. There are drugs that will increase metabolism the way exercise does, but these are the same drugs that they are usually testing for.
Exercise should only be considered when the subject knows that he or she will not be given a pop quiz in the near future. Studies have shown that Clenbuterol reduces fat, which would help rid lipid tissue of THC metabolities. Clenbuterol also increases metabolism.
No studies have directly shown that Clenbuterol will help pass a drug test. However, provided that it reduces fat, I would assume that the fat breakdown would result in less fat soluble substances in the system. Clenbuteral is labeled as a performance enhancer, and it's on the banned list for athlete testing. If are being tested as an athlete, avoid Clenbuterol! Beta-3 agonists are drugs that stimulate the beta-3 andrenergic receptors on brown fat cells.
The beta-3 andrenergic receptor is located on the surface of fat cells, and controls the amount of fat the cell releases into the bloodstream. When brown fat is stimulated, white fat is burned converted into heat. Many people have mutant beta-3 andrenergic receptors, causing calories to be burned too slowly; thus leading to obesity. These people will benefit most from beta-3 agonist drugs. If the drug works as claimed, I believe it would reduce the detection time of fat soluble drugs by continually excreting metabolites into the bloodstream at a faster pace.
As with vitamin lecithin and exercise, you would take beta-3 agonists between tests, and quit a couple days prior to the test. Beta-3 agonists have been in the development phase for the past 13 years. One firm is already testing a beta-3 drug in early clinical trials. It's not on the market yet. If you're an athlete and get tested for steroids, you can still use anabolic steroids and possibly beat the cutoff.
The body naturally produces testosterone a steroid , and small amounts of testosterone show up in urine by default. Some athletes are able to keep their steroid intake low enough to indicate a natural level of steroids. Steroids are only meant to be used in small amounts to begin with. Anything over a normal dose goes unused. Also, no study has shown stacking to be beneficial.
Advertisers like to present their diuretic as a masking agent to make the sale. Consequently, diuretics are often mistaken for drug screens. Most herbal products claim to do a lot more than they actually do. Don't be fooled by herbal potions that claim to flush or absorb toxins. According to Jeff Nightbyrd, there is testing industry data that taking 4 aspirins a few hours prior to the test might help you.
It seems that aspirin absorbs at the same wavelength that NAD does which is how it interferes with the assay" Clin Chem 34 90 Two reliable sources have tested aspirin and found it to interfere with the EMIT. In the future they will try to find a way to circumvent this test flaw. Until then, I certainly recommend taking advantage of the situation and using aspirin. Goldenseal has shown to work on occasion. However, some labs are reportedly testing for Goldenseal. Goldenseal as a screen only works on the TLC test, which is not used anymore.
Niacin has been shown to work on occasion. Byrd Labs tests conclude that niacin doesn't work at all. In other words, something else probably caused a negative, not the niacin. Zinc sulfate is claimed to bond with THC metabolites, and because it's a solid, it gets passed as stool rather than urine. Jeff Nightbyrd says it does nothing. Anne Watters Pearson said "zinc sulfate is no miracle drug for pissing. Puri-Blend is claimed to "block" metabolites from entering the bloodstream and to "neutralize" all drugs in the urine.
I don't believe it myself. Sold in GNC stores. The Stuff is claimed to absorb toxins in the body and block detection of true and false positives. I should also add that you may be watched, so don't rely on this method. You should be able to find out ahead of time if you will be supervised. Some of the following additives alter the urine's pH, and most labs now test the pH to see if the sample has been adulterated.
If you are subject to random tests, you may want to carry an additive in your wallet. Additives are illegal in the state of Texas, and commercial vendors will not ship their product to Texas addresses. These additives are recommended. Chlorinated bleach will test negative, and it's the best household additive. In an emergency, Jeff Nightbyrd recommends adding unscented bleach crystals to a diluted sample. It's recommended to grind the powdered bleach to a finer grain.
For liquid bleach, add six to ten drops. Bleach will throw the pH outside the normal body range; so it may be apparent that the sample was tampered with. Some bleaches foam or leave residue, so experiment with different brands before selecting which to use. Klear is a powdered additive. It was, until recently, the most advanced and least detectable. However, some labs can now detect Klear. Due to the popularity of Klear and many cases where people were caught using it, Jeff Nightbyrd recommends reverting back to UrinAid.
If methamphetamines are present, Klear won't help. Klear is only designed to work on the EMIT. It will also work on the RIA when there is a good time span between the urine getting spiked, and getting tested. If the RIA test is not performed on-site, there is a good chance Klear will cause a false negative.
You can also get Klear direct from Klear the organization. You can dilute your sample heavily with water. Don't confuse this with drinking water; you can also add water directly to the sample. Be sure to use hot water between 91 and 97 degrees , they will likely take the temperature of the sample.
This method isn't dependable because some facilities have the sink water shut off so people can't do this. If there is running water, they may listen to you. If you turn on the water, make it sound like you're washing your hands or something. These additives are not recommended.
Many of these may give negative test results, but are not recommended for other reasons. The pH is altered, and the ammonia odor is strong enough to be recognized. It's been said that a few drops of blood will fix your sample; it doesn't. Draino will test negative.
However, Draino is NOT recommended because it doesn't work well even when half a teaspoon is added. It colors the sample blue, and will put the pH outside the normal body range.
Draino foams, and leaves metal specs that must be removed. Goldenseal put directly in the sample doesn't alter test results. It only turns the specimen brown. Do not dope your urine with Goldenseal. Goldenseal is more commonly used as a screen, to be consumed. See Goldenseal under section 7. Industrial grade will destroy half the THC metabolites. Household strength hydrogen peroxide does nothing. Lemon juice is a myth; it will not change the test results.
Will test negative, but makes the specimen cloudy, which certainly draws suspicion. This additive was effective for a very short period. SuperClean had to be strong enough to beat the tests, but weak enough to be undetectable. In fact, it also causes a false-positive on the EMIT for alcohol! PHE claims there have been no returns. This is more effective than table salt below , but dissolves poorly. Two tablespoons of salt will test negative, but puts the density out of normal range.
Residue can also be seen at the bottom of the cup. UrinAid, produced by Byrd Labs, is very potent and works every time for masking pot and nicotine, but not cocaine or heroin.
They have recently developed a test solely to detect UrinAid. Adding vinegar to your sample will test negative, but also drops the pH. In fact, lowering the pH is what causes the sample to test negative.
This method is not recommended because if you are lucky and lower the pH enough to produce a negative, there's a chance that the pH itself will also be tested. Byrd Labs concluded that Visine does not work. Clinton said that the lab he worked in tested Visine, and concluded that Visine works every time as a false negative for the EMIT. It can be detected due to inability of the sample to foam. WD40 can only do harm. This is a papaya enzyme available over the counter. It isn't known whether this does anything.
Papain has not been tested, and may or may not work. You simply give them clean urine not yours. This works very well if you're not supervised. If you are going to be supervised, try to talk them out of it. Someone told me they were going to be monitored, and they said "I don't want you to fuckin' watch me piss!
Members in active duty are often watched as the urine flows from source to destination but substitution will even work on this test, as you will find out. Abbie Hoffman, author of "Stealing This Urine Test," suggested leaving a few drops of urine on the seat or on your shoe for as "an added measure of authenticity.
There are three methods, but two of them are painful, and you have to be determined to use them. The most common way to sneak in urine is in a concealed container. Simply conceal the urine. The first time you're alone with the container they give you, dump in your concealed urine.
Be sure you can quietly open the container; the lab personnel may be just outside the door listening. You may be required to change into a gown. If so, a condom or douche bag holding the sample and taped around the thigh can be concealed under the gown. You can also run a plastic line from a flexible container and tape it to your urination equipment to be gender neutral , and even piss under supervision.
Females have been known to keep a condom with the urine sample in the vagina, and prick it with a sharp fingernail to piss under supervision. Be sure to keep the sample between 91 and 97 degrees. If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from". In all cases the Ref. XX is the XXth reference in the list of references. If you are the author of this article you do not need to formally request permission to reproduce figures, diagrams etc.
If you are the author of this article you still need to obtain permission to reproduce the whole article in a third party publication with the exception of reproduction of the whole article in a thesis or dissertation. Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.
Previous Article Next Article. The development of paper microfluidic devices for presumptive drug detection. This article is part of the themed collection: You have access to this article. Please wait while we load your content Back to tab navigation Download options Please wait The development of paper microfluidic devices for presumptive drug d….
Download author version PDF.
There was a problem providing the content you requested
Reagents/Materials: The varied nature of drug samples dictates that several .. Version 8. Reference Materials/Controls/Calibration Checks: N/A. We investigated 21, submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from Ketamine was also assayed using DRI reagent as the initial screen test on each urine specimen . . Invalid, 1 (), 2 (), 2 (), 3 (), 3 (), 11 (). Pages in category "Drug testing reagents". The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).