A graphical representation of the three cities of Greater Sydney on a laptop screen. A metropolis of three cities. Rebalancing growth and delivering its benefits. A Metropolis of Three Cities - the Greater Sydney Region Plan will rebalance growth and deliver its benefits more equally and equitably to residents across. Greater Sydney extends from the shore to the Blue Mountains.
The Commercial Traveller's Club, located in Martin Place and built in , was of similar height at 10 floors. The Great Depression had a tangible influence on Sydney's architecture.
New structures became more restrained with far less ornamentation than was common before the s. The most notable architectural feat of this period is the Harbour Bridge. Its steel arch was designed by John Bradfield and completed in A total of 39, tonnes of structural steel span the metres 1, feet between Milsons Point and Dawes Point.
Modern and International architecture came to Sydney from the s. Since its completion in the city's Opera House has become a World Heritage Site and one of the world's most renowned pieces of Modern design.
Utzon was awarded the Pritzker Prize in for his work on the Opera House. An entrance from The Goods Line —a pedestrian pathway and former railway line—is located on the eastern border of the site.
Green bans and heritage overlays have been in place since at least to protect Sydney's heritage after controversial demolitions in the s led to an outcry from Sydneysiders to preserve the old and keep history intact, sufficiently balancing old and new architecture.
Sydney real estate prices are some of the most expensive in the world, surpassing both New York City and Paris. Due to environmental and economic pressures there has been a noted trend towards denser housing. The Government has announced plans to sell nearly historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks. Sydney is one of the most expensive real estate markets globally. It is only second to Hong Kong with the average property costing 14 times the annual Sydney salary as of December Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, Potts Point and Balmain—many of which have been the subject of gentrification.
In the present day, terrace houses now make up some of the most valuable real estate in the city. Federation homes, constructed around the time of Federation in , are located in Penshurst , Turramurra , and in Haberfield. Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb" due to the extensive number of Federation homes. Workers cottages are found in Surry Hills, Redfern , and Balmain. California bungalows are common in Ashfield , Concord , and Beecroft. The Royal Botanic Garden is the most important green space in the Sydney region, hosting both scientific and leisure activities.
The Royal National Park was proclaimed on 26 April and with 13, hectares 51 square miles is the second oldest national park in the world. The largest park in the Sydney metropolitan area is Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, established in with an area of 15, hectares 59 square miles. The area now known as The Domain was set aside by Governor Arthur Phillip in as his private reserve. This makes them the oldest botanic garden in Australia. Researchers from Loughborough University have ranked Sydney amongst the top ten world cities that are highly integrated into the global economy.
The prevailing economic theory in effect during early colonial days was mercantilism , as it was throughout most of Western Europe. Governor Lachlan Macquarie solved the second problem by creating two coins from every Spanish silver dollar in circulation. Wheat, gold, and other minerals became additional export industries towards the end of the s. Protectionist policies after federation allowed for the creation of a manufacturing industry which became the city's largest employer by the s.
Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities. Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia. The labour force of Greater Sydney Region in was 2,, with a participation rate of Unemployment in the City of Sydney averaged 4.
Each day about , commuters travel from Western Sydney to the CBD and suburbs in the east and north of the city. Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to the Second World War but this trend has since reversed.
Bank collapses were a frequent occurrence and a crisis point was reached in when 12 banks failed. It was replaced in this role in by the Reserve Bank of Australia which is also based in Sydney. Sydney has been a manufacturing city since the protectionist policies of the s.
Sydney is a gateway to Australia for many international visitors. It has hosted over 2. The city also received 8. Major developmental projects designed to increase Sydney's tourism sector include a casino and hotel at Barangaroo and the redevelopment of East Darling Harbour , which involves a new exhibition and convention centre , now Australia's largest. Sydney is the highest ranking city in the world for international students.
More than 50, international students study at the city's universities and a further 50, study at its vocational and English language schools. The population of Sydney in was less than 1, The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and There were 54, people of indigenous heritage living in Sydney in There were significant clusters of people based on nationality or religion throughout the history of Sydney development.
If local residents with at least one migrant-born parent is included, then 65 percent of Sydney's population is migrant. Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is rich in Indigenous Australian heritage, containing around 1, pieces of Aboriginal rock art — the largest cluster of Indigenous sites in Australia, surpassing Kakadu , which has around 5, sites but over a much greater land mass.
The park's indigenous sites include petroglyphs , art sites, burial sites , caves , marriage areas, birthing areas, midden sites, and tool manufacturing locations, among others, which are dated to be around 5, years old.
The inhabitants of the area were the Garigal people. The Australian Museum opened in Sydney in with the purpose of collecting and displaying the natural wealth of the colony. In the Museum of Sydney opened on the site of the first Government House. It recounts the story of the city's development. The Society exists "for the encouragement of studies and investigations in science, art, literature, and philosophy".
It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney. Its collection was founded in the s by artist and art collector John Power and has been maintained by the University of Sydney. Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in and nine more had commenced performances by the late s.
The live medium lost much of its popularity to cinema during the Great Depression before experiencing a revival after World War II. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. It has staged over , performances and received million visitors since opening in The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Garden and serves the Australian music community through education and its biannual Australian Music Examinations Board exams.
Many writers have originated in and set their work in Sydney. The city was the headquarters for Australia's first published newspaper, the Sydney Gazette. A Wildly Distorted Account , J. Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema.
Impossible 2 , Moulin Rouge! Sydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Australia. Sydney Festival is Australia's largest arts festival. The city's two largest film festivals are Sydney Film Festival and Tropfest.
Vivid Sydney is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music. In , Sydney was ranked 13th for being the top fashion capitals in the world. The Sydney Mardi Gras has commenced each February since Sydney's Chinatown has had numerous locations since the s. The Star is the city's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour. The indigenous people of Sydney held totemic beliefs known as " dreamings ".
Governor Lachlan Macquarie made an effort to found a culture of formal religion throughout the early settlement and ordered the construction of churches such as St Matthew's, St Luke's, St James's, and St Andrew's. The Sydney Morning Herald is Australia's oldest newspaper still in print. Now a compact form paper owned by Fairfax Media , it has been published continuously since The Bulletin was founded in Sydney in and became Australia's longest running magazine.
It closed after years of continuous publication. Each of Australia's three commercial television networks and two public broadcasters is headquartered in Sydney.
Foxtel is based in North Ryde and sells subscription cable television to most parts of the urban area. Radio became a popular tool for politics, news, religion, and sport and has managed to survive despite the introduction of television and the Internet.
Sydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment.
The first organised sports were boxing, wrestling, and horse racing from in Hyde Park. The first cricket club was formed in and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the s and s. First played in Sydney in , rugby grew to be the city's most popular football code by the s.
One-tenth of the state's population attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League competition: The Waratahs are a member of the Australian Hockey League.
The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league. Women were first allowed to participate in recreational swimming when separate baths were opened at Woolloomooloo Bay in the s.
From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early s and the first surf lifesaving club was established at Bondi Beach. The City2Surf is an annual kilometre 8. In , 80, runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world. Sailing races have been held on Sydney Harbour since Sydney Olympic Park accommodates athletics, aquatics, tennis, hockey, archery, baseball, cycling, equestrian, and rowing facilities.
It also includes the high capacity Stadium Australia used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in and is used for rugby and soccer matches.
Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures. A tennis tournament is held here at the beginning of each year as the warm-up for the Grand Slam in Melbourne. Two of the most successful tennis players in history: Ken Rosewall and Todd Woodbridge were born in and live in the city. During early colonial times the presiding Governor and his military shared absolute control over the population. The first indications of a proper legal system emerged with the passing of a Charter of Justice in It established three new courts, including the Supreme Court , and dictated that English law was to be followed.
The existing Legislative Council became the upper house and a new body called the Legislative Assembly was formed to be the lower house. The colonial settlements elsewhere on the continent eventually seceded from New South Wales and formed their own governments. Tasmania separated in , Victoria did so in , and Queensland followed in Sydney is divided into local government areas also known as councils or shires which are comparable in nature to London's boroughs.
Sydney is the location of the secondary official residences of the Governor-General of Australia and the Prime Minister of Australia , Admiralty House and Kirribilli House respectively. This building was completed in and first served as a hospital.
The Legislative Council moved into its northern wing in and by had entirely supplanted the surgeons from their quarters. Public activities such as main roads, traffic control, public transport, policing, education, and major infrastructure projects are controlled by the New South Wales Government.
In federal politics, Sydney was initially considered as a possibility for Australia's capital city ; the newly created city of Canberra ultimately filled this role. Education became a proper focus for the colony from the s when public schools began to form and schooling became compulsory.
There are six public universities based in Sydney: Four public universities maintain secondary campuses in the city: Sydney has public, denominational, and independent schools. It offered courses in areas such as mechanical drawing, applied mathematics, steam engines, simple surgery, and English grammar. At the census, 2. The first hospital in the new colony was a collection of tents at The Rocks.
Many of the convicts that survived the trip from England continued to suffer from dysentery , smallpox , scurvy , and typhoid. Healthcare facilities remained hopelessly inadequate despite the arrival of a prefabricated hospital with the Second Fleet and the construction of brand new hospitals at Parramatta, Windsor , and Liverpool in the s.
Governor Lachlan Macquarie arranged for the construction of Sydney Hospital and saw it completed in The city's first emergency department was established at Sydney Hospital in Demand for emergency medical care increased from with the introduction of an ambulance service.
Healthcare gained recognition as a citizen's right in the early s and Sydney's public hospitals came under the oversight of the Government of New South Wales. The motor vehicle, more than any other factor, has determined the pattern of Sydney's urban development since World War II. Widespread criticism over Sydney's reliance on sprawling road networks, as well as the motor vehicle, have stemmed largely from proponents of mass public transport and high density housing.
There can be up to , cars using Sydney's roads simultaneously during peak hour, leading to significant traffic congestion. Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the world.
It was the second largest in the British Empire, after London, with routes covering kilometres miles. The internal combustion engine made buses more flexible than trams and consequently more popular, leading to the progressive closure of the tram network with the final tram operating in It was extended to Lilyfield in and then Dulwich Hill in The Parramatta Light Rail has also been announced. Bus services today are conducted by a mixture of Government and private operators.
In areas previously serviced by trams the government State Transit Authority operates, in other areas, there are private albeit part funded by the state government operators. Integrated tickets called Opal cards operate on both government and private bus routes.
State Transit alone operated a fleet of 2, buses and serviced over million passengers during In total, nearly million boardings were recorded across the bus network  NightRide is a nightly bus service that operate between midnight and 5am, also replacing trains for most of this period.
Train services are operated by Sydney Trains. The organisation maintains stations and kilometres miles of railway and provides million journeys each year. At the time the Sydney Harbour Bridge opened in , the city's ferry service was the largest in the world.
It services 46 international and 23 domestic destinations. Bankstown is also the fourth busiest airport in Australia by number of aircraft movements.
Cruise ship terminals are located at Sydney Cove and White Bay. As climate change , greenhouse gas emissions and pollution have become a major issue for Australia, Sydney has in the past been criticised for its lack of focus on reducing pollution, cutting back on emissions and maintaining water quality.
The development led to the release of the Metropolitan Air Quality Scheme MAQS , which led to a broader understanding of the causation of pollution in Sydney, allowing the government to form appropriate responses to the pollution.
Australian cities are some of the most car dependent cities in the world. It also has a low level of mass-transit services, with a historically low-density layout and significant urban sprawl , thus increasing the likelihood of car dependency.
The City of Sydney became the first council in Australia to achieve formal certification as carbon-neutral in The city also has an "urban forest growth strategy", in which it aims to regular increase the tree coverage in the city by frequently planting trees with strong leaf density and vegetation to provide cleaner air and create moisture during hot weather, thus lowering city temperatures.
The One Central Park development, completed in , is an example of this implementation and design. Obtaining sufficient fresh water was difficult during early colonial times. A catchment called the Tank Stream sourced water from what is now the CBD but was little more than an open sewer by the end of the s. The WaterNSW now manages eleven major dams: The two distributors which maintain Sydney's electricity infrastructure are Ausgrid and Endeavour Energy.
Sydney maintains sister city and friendship city relations with numerous global cities. These were established to form links of friendship, cultural understanding, inter-community relations, and to develop closer economic ties. Sydney is officially affiliated with: National and ACT Canberra.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 10 February This article is about the Australian metropolis.
For the local government area, see City of Sydney. For other uses, see Sydney disambiguation. City in New South Wales, Australia. History of Sydney and Timeline of Sydney. Climate data for Sydney Observatory Hill. Architecture of Sydney , List of heritage houses in Sydney , and List of tallest buildings in Sydney.
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Infrastructure and Collaboration Liveability Productivity Sustainability. Read the full plan Explore plans. Infrastructure Liveability Productivity Sustainability All. A city supported by infrastructure. A city for people. A city of great places. A well connected city. Jobs and skills for the city.
A city in its landscape. Aligning land use, transport and infrastructure planning This plan was prepared concurrently with Future Transport and the State Infrastructure Strategy.
The Even Greater Sydney Planning Committee is in session
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and . However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45, to 50, years BP, which. Greater Western Sydney (GWS) is a large region of the metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia that generally embraces the north-west. A Metropolis of Three Cities to ensure planning and land use of the Greater Sydney Region is respectful, equitable and sustainable. The three cities – the.