Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, with million . 77% of the population was fluent in Russian in , and 67% used it as the. Religion in Russia is diverse with Christianity, especially Orthodoxy, being the most widely professed faith, but with significant minorities of Irreligious people, . This principle is often used to estimate the magnitude of very small groups. Russians (Russian: русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern One is "русский" (russkiy), which most often means "ethnic Russians" ( the subject The name of the Russians derives from the Rus' people ( supposedly .. It continues to be used in the countries that were formerly parts of the Soviet.
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After this, he gives small Christmas gifts to the children. Russians decorate their homes with a Christmas tree and often put pine leaves on their front doors, and in the house. The Russian Christmas tree is usually taken down at the end of January after the feast day of the Baptism of Christ.
Russian Christmas Religious Traditions. In the Orthodox tradition nothing is eaten or drunk on Christmas Eve until the first star appears in the sky. The star is symbolic of the great star that led the Magi to the newly born Christ.
Once the first star has appeared in the sky, the festivities begin with a Lenten meal - meaning meat or dairy products including chocolates are excluded. The family gathers around the table to honor the coming Christ Child. A white tablecloth is used to symbolize Christ's swaddling clothes and hay is displayed as a reminder of the poverty of the place where Jesus was born. A tall white candle is placed in the center of the Table, to symbolize Christ - the "Light of the World.
The father begins the Christmas meal by leading the family in the Lord's Prayer, a prayer of thanksgiving for the blessings of the past year and for the good things to come in the new year. The head of the family greets those present with "Christ is Born! The bread is dipped first in honey to symbolize the sweetness of life and then in chopped garlic to symbolize life's bitterness.
The "Holy Supper" is then eaten. After dinner, no dishes are washed and the Christmas presents are opened. The family goes to church for the Christmas Mass which lasts until after midnight. Although there was also some variation in the foods from place to place and village to village, the following is a good summary of what is typically served. On Christmas morning the family returns to church for the Christmas day Liturgy. After church the family gathers together to exchange gifts and share a special Christmas meal.
Children go from door to door caroling the song "Thy Nativity". Preheat the oven to degrees F degrees C. Cream together sugar and margarine. Mix in the sour cream. Add the unbeaten eggs, one at a time. In a separate bowl mix the flour, baking powder, and baking soda. The dough will become stiff. Spoon half the dough into a well-greased and floured inch tube pan. Mix together the topping ingredients: Later, both Belarusians and South Russians formed on this ethnic linguistic ground.
From the 6th century onwards, another group of Slavs moved from Pomerania to the northeast of the Baltic Sea , where they encountered the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate and established the important regional center of Novgorod. The same Slavic ethnic population also settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero.
With the Uralic substratum, they formed the tribes of the Krivichs and of the Ilmen Slavs. Kievan Rus' was a loose federation of states that existed from the late 9th to the midth century.
Modern Russians derive their name and cultural ancestry from Kievan Rus'. East Slavic tribes and peoples, 8th-9th century. Principalities of Kievan Rus' , Terek Cossacks of the north Caucasus guarded the southern frontier.
Three generations of a Russian family, the Kaganovs, from the Urals, ca. Photo taken by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky. After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union an estimated 25 million Russians began living outside of the Russian Federation, most of them in the former Soviet Republics.
Ethnic Russians historically migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union , sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by the Tsarist and later Soviet government. After the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in , many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, and millions became refugees. Today the largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside Russia live in former Soviet states such as Ukraine about 8 million , Kazakhstan about 3.
These communities may identify themselves either as Russians or citizens of these countries, or both, to varying degrees. People who had arrived in Latvia and Estonia during the Soviet era, including their descendants born in these countries, mostly Russians, became stateless after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and were provided only with an option to acquire naturalised citizenship.
The language issue is still contentious, particularly in Latvia, where ethnic Russians have protested against plans to liquidate education in minority languages, including Russian.
Since , Estonia has naturalized some , residents of undefined citizenship, mainly ethnic Russians. Both the European Union and the Council of Europe , as well as the Russian government , expressed their concern during the s about minority rights in several countries, most notably Latvia and Estonia.
In Moldova , the Transnistria region where In June , Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the plan to introduce a national policy aiming at encouraging ethnic Russians to immigrate to Russia. At the same time, many ethnic Russians from former Soviet territories have emigrated to Russia itself since the s. Many of them became refugees from a number of states of Central Asia and Caucasus as well as from the separatist Chechen Republic , forced to flee during political unrest and hostilities towards Russians.
Today, a large group of people in northern China can still speak Russian as a second language. Russians eluosizu are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China as the Russ ; there are approximately 15, Russian Chinese living mostly in northern Xinjiang , and also in Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. Russian culture originated from that of the East Slavs , who were largely polytheists , and had a specific way of life in the wooded areas of Eastern and Northern Europe.
The Scandinavian Vikings , or Varangians , also took part in forming the Russian identity and state in the early Kievan Rus' period of the late 1st millennium AD. The Rus' accepted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in , and this largely defined Russian culture for the next millennium , namely as a synthesis of Slavic and Byzantine cultures. For most of the 20th century, Marxist ideology shaped the culture of the Soviet Union , where Russia, i.
Russian culture is varied and unique in many respects. It has a rich history and a long tradition in all of the arts,  especially in fields of literature  and philosophy , classical music   and ballet ,  architecture and painting , cinema  and animation , all of which had considerable influence on world culture. Russians also gave the classical music world some very famous composers, including Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and his contemporaries, the Mighty Handful , including Modest Mussorgsky and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of three or, according to some authorities [ who? Examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onwards, and while Russian preserves much of East Slavonic grammar and a Common Slavonic word base, modern Russian exhibits a large stock of borrowed international vocabulary for politics, science, and technology.
Russian has palatal secondary articulation of consonants , the so-called soft and hard sounds. This distinction is found in most consonant phonemes and is one of the most distinguishing features of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels , not unlike a similar process in English. Stress in Russian is often described as "unpredictable": Due to the status of the Soviet Union as a super power , Russian gained a great political importance in the second half of the 20th century.
It is one of the official languages of the United Nations. All astronauts working in the International Space Station are required to master Russian. The total number of Russian speakers in the world in the assessment was about million, with about million people speaking Russian as a second language.
Prior to , Russian was the language of international communication of the USSR and the most common foreign language taught in schools in the countries of the Eastern Bloc in Central Europe.
It continues to be used in the countries that were formerly parts of the Soviet Union, both as the mother tongue of a significant percentage of the population, and as a language of international communication. While for various reasons residents of these countries might be unwilling to openly identify with Russian language, a major sociological study on the Russian language in the post-Soviet states conducted by Gallup, Inc.
Russian-language periodicals, radio and television channels are available, as well as Russian-language schools. It has played a vital role in the development of Russian national identity. In other countries Russian faithful usually belong to the local Orthodox congregations which either have a direct connection like the Ukrainian Orthodox Church , autonomous from the Moscow Patriarchate or historical origin like the Orthodox Church in America or a Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia with the Russian Orthodox Church.
Non-religious Russians may associate themselves with the Orthodox faith for cultural reasons. Some Russian people are Old Believers: Other schisms from Orthodoxy include Doukhobors which in the 18th century rejected secular government, the Russian Orthodox priests, icons, all church ritual, the Bible as the supreme source of divine revelation and the divinity of Jesus, and later emigrated into Canada.
An even earlier sect were Molokans which formed in and rejected Czar's divine right to rule , icons, the Trinity as outlined by the Nicene Creed , Orthodox fasts , military service, and practices including water baptism.
Other world religions have negligible representation among ethnic Russians. The largest of these groups are Islam with over , followers from national minorities,  and Baptists with over 85, Russian adherents.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union various new religious movements have sprung up and gathered a following among ethnic Russians. The most prominent of these are Rodnovery , the revival of the Slavic native religion also common to other Slavic nations ,  Another movement, very small in comparison to other new religions, is Vissarionism , a syncretic group with an Orthodox Christian background. Russians have greatly contributed to the fields of sports , science and technology , politics , business, and the arts.
The first man in space, Yuri Gagarin , was a Russian, and the first artificial satellite to be put into outer space , Sputnik 1 , was launched by the Soviet Union and was developed mainly by Russian aerospace engineer Sergey Korolyov.
Prominent Russian novelists such as Tolstoy in particular, were important figures and have remained internationally renowned. Some scholars have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 February This article is about the East Slavic ethnic group, regardless of country of citizenship. For all citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity, see Citizenship of Russia and Demographics of Russia. For other uses, see Russian disambiguation. This section should include a summary of History of Russia. Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text.
Ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states.
Global information and education on HIV and AIDS
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