In this review, we briefly summarized our knowledge of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, focusing on the CB1R and the CNS. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. In this review, we briefly summarized our knowledge of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system. A. Cannabinoid Receptors and Ligands primarily in cells of the immune and hematopoietic systems (Munro et al., .. has been identified in our laboratory in RAW macrophages.
the Our Endocannabinoid System and Cannabinoid Receptors
By understanding the endocannabinoid system and how it interacts with cannabis, patients and consumers can become more informed about their health and can ask their caregivers, doctors, or budtenders better questions. Put simply, the endocannabinoid system is responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the body. If homeostasis is successful, life continues; if unsuccessful, disaster or death ensues.
Endocannabinoid receptors are found throughout the body on the surface of cells in the brain, organs, tissues, and glands. These receptors are embedded in cell membranes and produce varying reactions when stimulated by cannabinoids. Cannabinoids come from two distinct places — the body, which produces naturally occurring endocannabinoids, and the cannabis plant, which produces phytocannabinoids.
The third part of the ECS is metabolic enzymes. Metabolic enzymes act like a natural referee in that they destroy endocannabinoids once they are used and no longer useful to the body. This self-regulating system ensures the interaction only happens when needed and therefore keeps the workings of the endocannabinoid system relatively quiet to the conscious brain, unlike, the hormonal system, which can keep the chemicals around longer than the interaction.
Because homeostasis is so important to health, all vertebrates and invertebrates are known to have an ECS. This discovery was quickly followed up with further evidence by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, the famous chemist who discovered THC. With less than 30 years of research, the endocannabinoid system is one of the less studied systems in the body. Currently, restrictions on cannabis research limit what scientists can examine in terms of furthering our understanding of how cannabis interacts with the endocannabinoid system.
When someone uses cannabis medicinally they are keying into these natural mechanisms which sometimes are deficient and need supplementation.
Cannabinoid receptorsSo what do we know about how cannabis interacts with our bodies and the endocannabinoid system? Two cannabinoid receptors have been discovered by researchers: CB1 is found in the central and peripheral nervous system. CB2 receptors are predominantly found in the immune system and the gastrointestinal system where they regulate inflammatory responses in the bowels.
CB2 receptors are also found in the brain, although not as densely as CB1 receptors. These receptors, a large part of the endocannabinoid system, play roles in regulating cardiovascular activity, appetite, mood, memory, and pain in the body. CBD stimulates both receptors and causes a reaction without binding directly, creating changes in cells that contain them.
CBD also binds to a protein-receptor couple, TRPV-1, responsible for regulating body temperature, pain, and inflammation. To fully understand the encocannabinoid system and its role in the physiological and pathological processes of body systems, we must pay attention to the way our body is formed and what we really are.
Our body is an independent entity capable of receiving certain information from the outside world through the senses and then interpreting and elaborating on it in the brain, to finally allow the rest of our body to interact with such data. This arrangement allows our body to meet needs such as feeding or reproduction, in addition to being aware of both its own self and the outside world.
Something much more complex to understand, is the fact that our body is formed by a colony of millions of cells. Each cell is independent, has its individual needs for energy sources and has its own biochemical process to obtain it.
These cells are organised according to their function and structural diversity, thus building the different organs. Each organ plays an specific function in the human body in order to keep the whole organism alive.
The organ in charge of keeping and controlling the different organ functioning, as well as processing the outside stimuli, is the brain.
We could say that the endocannabinoid system is a intercellular communication system. It basically is a neurotransmission system, although it is much more than that, as it can also be found in other organs and body tissues than the brain.
The endocannabinoid system seems to be the enhanced version of an ancestral intercellular communication system found in plants too; the arachidonic acid system.
In fact, the endocannabinoids' nature is directly related to arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid that participates in the signalling processes of plants and animals.
It regulates the defences against infections and the signalling of stress in plants. It also controls animal muscle growth, platelet cumpling, vasodilatation and inflammation. The endocannabinoid system is formed by both cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids that interact in the same way as a lock and its key Picture 1.
Cannabinoid receptors are cell membrane proteins that act as the lock of the endocannabinoids, which are endogenous ligands of lipidic nature, produced by the different body cells and that act as a perfect keys that join the receptors. This activation gives way to changes in the cells that end up in the final actions of the endocannabinoid system over the physiological body processes.
The endocannabinoid system gets involved in a wide variety of physiological processes i. The two main receptors that form the endocannabinoid system are the CB1 and CB2 cannabinois receptors. It has been accepted recently that the orphan receptor GPR55 can be considered as the third receptor for cannabinoid activity.
All these receptors are transmembrane proteins capable of sending out a an extracellular signal into the interior of a cell. CB1 receptors are metabotropic receptors expressed most abundantly in the brain and their distribution has been widely characterised in humans.
CB1 receptors are highly expressed in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, cortex and cerebellum. They are less expressed in the amygdala, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, periapeduncular grey matter and the spinal cord, as well as in other brain areas, mainly in the telencephalon and diencephalum.
CB1 receptors are also expressed in several peripheral organs. The distribution of CB2 receptors is quite different and mainly restricted to the periphery in the immune system cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes and microglial cells.
Recently, CB2 receptor expression has also been shown in skin nerve fibres and keratinocytes, bone cells such as osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts, liver and somatostatin secreting cells in the pancreas. The presence of CB2 receptors has also been demonstrated at the CNS, in astrocytes, microglial cells and brainstem neurons Picture 2.
There is evidence of staining with the CB2 antibody of human neurons. The presence of functional CB2 receptors is still debated. Recent evidences suggest that the CB2 receptor mediates emotional behaviours, such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, memory and nociception, supporting the presence of neuronal CB2 receptors or the involvement of glial cells in emotional behaviours.
The endocannabinoids are long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from the membrane phospholipids, specifically from the arachidonic acid. The two main endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG. Once the anandamide has been synthesised in the cell membrane of the stimulated cell, it is released in the hepatic cleft where it joins the cannabinoid receptors. After release, anandamide is transported from the synaptic cleft inside the cell through passive diffusion, or by a selective transporter that can be selectively inhibited by different compounds, such as AM However, this transporter has not been yet identified.
At present, it is postulated that anandamide diffuses passively through the membrane and is then cached in the cytoplasm by the Fatty Acid Binding Protein FABP and transported to the mitochondrion, where the enzyme that catabolises anandamide, FAAH, is located.
The most abundant endocannabinoid in the brain is 2-AG.
The Endocannabinoid System: How Cannabis Affects The Human Body
Endocannabinoids; Receptors in the nervous system and around your body that endocannabinoids and cannabinoids bond with; Enzymes that. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, The cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, two G protein- coupled receptors that The localization of the CB1 receptor in the endocannabinoid system has a very Further, our studies established the dependence of the central. Did you know that there is a system in our bodies comprised of receptors that interact exclusively with cannabinoids like CBD and THC?.