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Patients in group B started with placebo for seven days, crossed to the active period 14 days and closed with a three-day placebo period active drug dose escalation and placebo sham escalation as in group A. Measures used included daily self-report of spasm frequency and symptoms, Ashworth Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index, m timed walk, nine-hole peg test, paced auditory serial addition test PASAT , and the digit span test. In the 50 patients included into the intention-to-treat analysis set, there were no statistically significant differences associated with active treatment compared to placebo, but trends in favour of active treatment were seen for spasm frequency, mobility and getting to sleep.
Minor adverse events were slightly more frequent and severe during active treatment, and toxicity symptoms, which were generally mild, were more pronounced in the active phase. A standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract might lower spasm frequency and increase mobility with tolerable side effects in MS patients with persistent spasticity not responding to other drugs. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.
There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , e.
The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent Delta 9 -tetrahydrocanabinoid acid THCa. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-alpha levels in culture supernatants from U macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages after stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner.
This inhibition persisted over a longer period of time, whereas after prolonged exposure time THC and heated Cannabis extract tend to induce the TNF-alpha level. Duration of use of oral cannabis extract in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients. Oral cannabis extracts OCEs are being used in the treatment of epilepsy with increasing rates in the United States following product legalization; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We evaluated the duration of use of OCEs as a measure of perceived benefit in a cohort of patients with pediatric epilepsy.
Retrospective chart review was performed of children and adolescents who were given OCEs for treatment of epilepsy. The average length of use of OCE was Parental report of OCE use in refractory pediatric epilepsy suggests that some families perceive benefit from this therapy; however, discontinuation of these products is common.
Duration appears to be affected by logical factors, such as perceived benefit and side effect profile. Surprisingly, families of patients with Dravet syndrome terminated use of OCEs more quickly than patients with other epilepsy syndromes.
Results from this study highlight the need for rigorous clinical studies to characterize the efficacy and safety of OCEs, which can inform discussions with patients and families. Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy.
Oral cannabis extracts OCEs have been used in the treatment of epilepsy; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We report on a cohort of pediatric patients with epilepsy who were given OCE and followed in a single tertiary epilepsy center.
A retrospective chart review of children and adolescents who were given OCE for treatment of their epilepsy was performed.
The responder rate varied based on epilepsy syndrome: Additional benefits reported included: Rare adverse events included developmental regression, abnormal movements, status epilepticus requiring intubation, and death. Our retrospective study of OCE use in pediatric patients with epilepsy demonstrates that some families reported patient improvement with treatment; however, we also found a variety of challenges and possible confounding factors in studying OCE retrospectively in an open-labeled fashion.
We strongly support the need for controlled, blinded studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OCE for treatment of pediatric epilepsies using accurate seizure counts, formal neurocognitive assessments, as well as EEG as a biomarker. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.
Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications.
Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes.
Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors.
These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats.
Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count.
The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. Hempseed Cannabis sativa L. In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis EFC protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats.
We found that EFC significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, while lowering levels of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus. Moreover, EFC dramatically elevated the organ indices of some organs, including the heart, the liver, the thymus, and the spleen. In addition, EFC improved the behavioral performance of rats treated with D-galactose in the Morris water maze.
Furthermore, EFC inhibited the activation of astrocytes and remarkably attenuated phosphorylated tau and suppressed the expression of presenilin 1 in the brain of D-galactose-treated rats. These findings suggested that EFC exhibits beneficial effects on the cognition of aging rats probably by enhancing antioxidant capacity and anti-neuroinflammation, improving immune function, and modulating tau phosphorylation and presenilin expression.
Testicular toxicity in cannabis extract treated mice: Intraperitoneal injection of cannabis extract at low doses total doses ranging from 40 mg to 60 mg per mouse induced adverse effect on testes and oxidative stress.
At low doses, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content, but the effects were significantly less at higher doses and at the withdrawal of cannabis treatment recovery dose.
There was a marked decrease in antioxidant enzyme profiles superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content at low doses, but these effects were higher at higher dose and at withdrawal of the treatment recovery effect. Histology revealed significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis with resulting lowered serum testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins follicular stimulating [FSH] and luteinizing hormones [LH] levels at low doses.
But at higher doses and particularly at withdrawal of the treatment, regression of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH were observed, indicating that recovery effects on testes became operative possibly through the corrective measure of endogenous testicular antioxidant enzymes profiles and pituitary gonadotropins hormones feedback mechanisms.
Besides the psychoactive Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , hashish and marijuana as well as cannabis -based medicine extracts contain varying amounts of cannabidiol CBD and of the degradation product cannabinol CBN.
The additional determination of these compounds is interesting from forensic and medical points of view because it can be used for further proof of cannabis exposure and because CBD is known to modify the effects of THC. The limits of detection were between 0.
The method was applied in a prospective pharmacokinetic study after single oral administration of 10 mg THC alone or together with 5. The maximum plasma concentrations after cannabis extract administration ranged between 1. CBN was not detected. Caused by the strong first-pass metabolism, the concentrations of the metabolites were increased during the first hours after drug administration when compared to literature data for smoking.
Cannabis has been used for centuries in the treatment of medical conditions. Cannabis has been recommended for appetite, anxiety, depression, sleep, and migraines.
However, the stigma associated with cannabis as a recreational drug has created challenges to the legitimacy and social acceptance of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. Adverse effects of cannabis. Cannabis , Cannabis sativa L. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults.
What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge.
Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent. The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication.
The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use.
However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation. To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes.
This case study is on a year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation.
A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient. Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control.
The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world.
Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders.
Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area.
Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication supportive care in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent.
Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.
Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving participants.
For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias.
All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing. Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions.
Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug.
Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb marihuana by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary.
Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.
Cannabidiol is a Cannabis -derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored.
In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal control mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh.
In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.
Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH inhibitor N-arachidonoylhydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective. In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice.
Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH. In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Influence of chronic oral intake of cannabis extract on oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism of xenobiotics in rat.
The hydrolysis of acetylcholine was also unchanged. Upon withdrawal of treatment microsomal hydrolytic activity receded to basal levels within 7 days. An appraisal of the hepatic cytochrome P mediated oxidative metabolism revealed approximately three-fold induction of aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase AHH metabolizing benzo a pyrene whereas the N-demethylation of aminopyrene was unaffected.
These activities were restored to normal when resin administration was discontinued. Extract from Fructus cannabis activating calcineurin improved learning and memory in mice with chemical drug-induced dysmnesia.
To investigate the effects of extract from Fructus cannabis EFC that can activate calcineurin on learning and memory impairment induced by chemical drugs in mice. Bovine brain calcineurin and calmodulin were isolated from frozen tissues. The activity of calcineurin was assayed using p-nitrophenyl phosphate PNPP as the substrate. Step-down type passive avoidance test and water maze were used together to determine the effects of EFC on learning and memory dysfunction. EFC activated calcineurin activity at a concentration range of 0.
EFC, given for 7 d, enhanced the spatial resolution of amnesic mice in water maze test. EFC overcome amnesia of three stages of memory process at the dose of 0.
EFC with an activation role of calcineurin can improve the impaired learning and memory induced by chemical drugs in mice. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users.
In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. We found pesticides in Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature.
In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation.
The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are. The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation.
Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and: Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse.
Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment. This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators.
Three keywords " cannabis addiction," " cannabis dependence," and " cannabis abuse" were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines.
Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…. Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people. Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand.
She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of cannabis in both biological fluid and hair strand. Despite medical treatment, cessation of the cannabis and tobacco consumption and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an amputation of necrotic parts was then required. This case shows the prolonged use of cannabis could be a risk factor for young adult arteritis.
Faced with a rapidly progressive arteritis occurring in young adult, the physician should consider the history of use of cannabis. Hair analysis can be useful for confirmation of the chronic consumption of drugs. Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands.
The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis.
Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation.
The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis. Inflammatory bowel diseases IBDs include Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients.
Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C. The anti-inflammatory activity of C. The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THCA present in fraction 7 F7 of the extract.
However, all fractions of C. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol CBD shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner.
Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 COX2 and metalloproteinase-9 MMP9 gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue. It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis.
It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts. The University of Florida Training Reactor UFTR facilities including the analytical laboratory are used for a wide range of educational, research, training, and service functions. The UFTR utilizes high enriched plate-type fuel in a two-slab arrangement and operates at a kW power level. Since first licensed to operate at 10 kW in , this nonpower reactor facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to a wide range of academic, utility, and community users.
Because of its relatively low power and careful laboratory analyses, the UFTR neutron flux characteristics in several ports are not only well characterized but they are also quite invariant with time. The analysis of untreated evidential botanical samples presented a unique opportunity to demonstrate implementation of this method at the UFTR facilities. Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabis -induced impairment of learning and memory: Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide.
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze MWM; Morris,  test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out.
Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis.
Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis -treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine.
After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose. Allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy in Korea rely mostly on imported allergen extracts. However, some allergens that are not important in Western countries are not commercially available, and even the same species of allergen source often displays differences in allergenicity due to amino acid sequence polymorphisms.
Therefore, it is essential to prepare allergen extracts that reflect regional characteristics. Allergen standardization has been performed since with the support of the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Here, we summarize the current status of allergen standardization , focusing on the house dust mite and cockroach. Pollen allergens that are under investigation are also briefly described.
Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements. Sequential extraction is a useful technique for assessing the potential to leach actinides from soils; however, current literature lacks uniformity in experimental details, making direct comparison of results impossible. This work continued development toward a standardized five-step sequential extraction protocol by analyzing extraction behaviors of Th, U, ,Pu and Am from lake and ocean sediment reference materials.
Results produced a standardized procedure after creating more defined reaction conditions to improve method repeatability. A NaOH fusion procedure is recommended following sequential leaching for the complete dissolution of insoluble species. Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur.
Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure. The data sets were processed by unsupervised multivariate analysis. Our results suggested that the main difference lies in the ratio of acid to decarboxylated cannabinoids, which dramatically influences the pharmacological activity of CMEs.
Minor cannabinoids, alkaloids, and amino acids contributing to this difference are also discussed. Notwithstanding the use of a standardised starting plant material, great changes are caused by different extraction procedures.
The metabolomics approach is a useful tool for the evaluation of the chemical composition of cannabis extracts. Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7—8 has engaged in medical marijuana use.
In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries.
Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis , there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation.
A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics.
Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence.
Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis , organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in has engaged in medical marijuana use.
Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. The preparations may consist of a drug partition in sachets, capsules or through the extraction in certified olive oil.
The aims of the study were: The method was then fully validated. The method assessed to be linear over the range 0. Imprecision and accuracy were within The method was then applied to olive oil after sample preparation, in order to evaluate the efficiency of extraction of a new generation instrument. Temperature of extraction is the most relevant factor to be optimized. The developed method was simple and fast. The extraction procedure proved to be. A review of the world cannabis situation.
Cannabis is the world's most widely cultivated and consumed illicit drug, but there remain major gaps in our understanding of global cannabis markets. For example, it appears that premium sinsemilla cannabis , often produced indoors in consumer countries, has become more potent in recent years and that its market share is also growing in some areas.
This may be leading to greater localization of cannabis markets. It may also be responsible for the increase in the proportion of cannabis users in treatment populations at the international level. Assessing the extent and impact of this trend, however, is hampered both by a lack of international standards on issues such as terminology and by unanswered research questions.
In order to arrive at accurate global estimates of the extent of production, there is a need for more scientific data on cannabis yields. On the demand side, more information is required on the question of cannabis dosage and volumes used by both occasional and regular users.
Cannabis is not a uniform drug: While issues concerning cannabis have been evaluated many times in the past, it remains a highly adaptable plant and, consequently, a dynamic drug, requiring constant reassessment. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons e.
An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference i. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems.
Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species.
Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference. Exposure to cannabis in popular music and cannabis use among adolescents.
Cannabis use is referenced frequently in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is associated independently with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large US urban high schools.
We estimated participants' exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists' songs. Outcomes included current past 30 days and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates.
Each of the participants was exposed to an estimated 27 cannabis references per day [correction added on 19 January , after first online publication: As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use.
This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. Psychiatric Morbidity of Cannabis Abuse.
The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use.
Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered.
Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available. Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders.
Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted. Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed.
Background Many people with schizophrenia use cannabis and its effects on the illness are unclear. Objectives To evaluate the effects of cannabis use on people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like illnesses. Selection criteria We included all randomised trials involving cannabinoids and people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences WMD again based on a fixed effects model.
Main results We identified one randomised trial. This review highlights the need for well designed, conducted and reported clinical trials to address the potential effects of cannabis based compounds for people with schizophrenia. A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations.
Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products.
Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal: There are no medications approved for treating cannabis dependence or withdrawal.
The cannabis extract nabiximols Sativex , developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nabiximols in treating cannabis withdrawal.
A 2-site, double-blind randomized clinical inpatient trial with a day follow-up was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. A 6-day regimen of nabiximols maximum daily dose, Severity of cannabis withdrawal and cravings Cannabis Withdrawal Scale , retention in withdrawal treatment, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes include postwithdrawal cannabis use, health outcomes, and psychosocial outcomes. Nabiximols treatment significantly reduced the overall severity of cannabis withdrawal relative to placebo F8, Nabiximols had a more limited, but still positive, therapeutic benefit on sleep disturbance, anxiety, appetite loss, physical symptoms, and restlessness.
Nabiximols patients remained in treatment longer during medication use unadjusted hazard ratio, 3. Both groups showed reduced cannabis use at follow-up, with no advantage of. The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. Cannabis -based medications have been a topic of intense study since the endogenous cannabinoid system was discovered two decades ago. In , for the first time, a cannabis extract was approved for clinical use in Germany.
Cannabis -based medications exert their effects mainly through the activation of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. More than controlled clinical trials of cannabinoids or whole-plant preparations for various indications have been conducted since The findings of these trials have led to the approval of cannabis -based medicines dronabinol, nabilone, and a cannabis extract [THC: In Germany, a cannabis extract was approved in for the treatment of moderate to severe refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis.
It is commonly used off label for the treatment of anorexia, nausea, and neuropathic pain. Patients can also apply for government permission to buy medicinal cannabis flowers for self-treatment under medical supervision. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting. There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.
Cannabis for Chronic Pain: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has found substantial evidence that cannabis plant is effective for the treatment of chronic pain in adults, and moderate evidence that oromucosal cannabinoids extracts , especially nabiximols improve short-term sleep disturbances in chronic pain. The paradoxical superiority of the cannabis plant over cannabinoid molecules represents a challenge for the medical community and the established processes that define modern pharmacy.
The expanding and variable legalization of cannabis in multiple states nationwide represents an additional challenge for patients and the medical community because recreational and medicinal cannabis are irresponsibly overlapped. Cannabis designed for recreational use containing high levels of active ingredients is increasingly available to patients with chronic pain who do not find relief with current pharmacologic entities, which exposes patients to potential harm.
This article analyzes the available scientific evidence to address controversial questions that the current state of cannabis poses for health care professionals and chronic pain patients and sets the basis for a more open discussion about the role of cannabis in modern medicine for pain management.
A critical discussion on these points, the legal status of cannabis , and considerations for health care providers is presented. Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism. The isobolographic study revealed that the anticonvulsant effects of purified CBDV and CBD were linearly additive when co-administered. Urine samples are diluted with a mixture of isotope labelled internal standards.
A total chromatographic run-time of 15 min is required for adequate resolution. Automated quantitation software algorithms have been developed in-house using XML scripting to partially automate the identification of positive samples, taking into account ion ratio IR and retention times Rt. Development of a new extraction technique and HPLC method for the analysis of non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L.
The present work was aimed at the development and validation of a new, efficient and reliable technique for the analysis of the main non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L.
This study was designed to identify samples with a high content of bioactive compounds, with a view to underscoring the importance of quality control in derived products as well. Different extraction methods, including dynamic maceration DM , ultrasound-assisted extraction UAE , microwave-assisted extraction MAE and supercritical-fluid extraction SFE were applied and compared in order to obtain a high yield of the target analytes from hemp.
Dynamic maceration for 45min with ethanol EtOH at room temperature proved to be the most suitable technique for the extraction of cannabinoids in hemp samples. The application of the fused-core technology allowed us to obtain a significant improvement of the HPLC performance compared with that of conventional particulate stationary phases, with a shorter analysis time and a remarkable reduction of solvent usage.
The analytical method optimized in this study was fully validated to show compliance with international requirements. Furthermore, it was applied to the characterization of nine hemp samples and six hemp-based pharmaceutical products.
As such, it was demonstrated to be a very useful tool for the analysis of cannabinoids in both the plant material and its derivatives for. Do cannabis -based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on patients.
The objective was to determine whether a cannabis -based medicinal extract CBME benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis MS.
A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue.
There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild. As a part of the project for the Chinese Pharmacopoeia edition , the quality standard of Sophora flavescens root extract was investigated and established. According to the methods described in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia edition , the water and ash inspections were carried out.
The marker components trifolirhizin, sophoraflavanone G, oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine in the samples were identified by qualitative TLC. The determination of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine was conducted by HPLC and the total flavonoids were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, using sophoraflavanone G as reference substance.
The results indicated the spots on the plate were clear with good resolution and the contents of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine in the 13 batches of the samples were 3. The total flavoids in the 13 batches of the samples were 3. In the study, the validated methods were reproducible and the established quality standard was feasible, which could be used for the quality control of S.
Association between increased EEG signal complexity and cannabis dependence. Both acute and regular cannabis use affects the functioning of the brain. While several studies have demonstrated that regular cannabis use can impair the capacity to synchronize neural assemblies during specific tasks, less is known about spontaneous brain activity.
This can be explored by measuring EEG complexity, which reflects the spontaneous variability of human brain activity. A recent study has shown that acute cannabis use can affect that complexity. Since the characteristics of cannabis use can affect the impact on brain functioning, this study sets out to measure EEG complexity in regular cannabis users with or without dependence, in comparison with healthy controls.
We recruited 26 healthy controls, 25 cannabis users without cannabis dependence and 14 cannabis users with cannabis dependence, based on DSM IV TR criteria. The EEG signal was extracted from at least epochs of the ms pre-stimulation phase during a visual evoked potential paradigm.
The analysis revealed a significant difference between the groups, with higher LZC in participants with cannabis dependence than in non-dependent cannabis users.
There was no specific localization of this effect across electrodes. We showed that cannabis dependence is associated to an increased spontaneous brain complexity in regular users. This result is in line with previous results in acute cannabis users. It may reflect increased randomness of neural activity in cannabis dependence.
Future studies should explore whether this effect is permanent or diminishes with cannabis cessation. The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes, with millions of regular users around the world.
The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects, such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting CINV and for pain management; however, studies are limited, particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products.
Smoking cannabis has not been proved to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer, but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of use, small numbers of heavy cannabis smokers, and confounding of the risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer such as parallel chronic tobacco use. Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally, controlled trials in which the cannabidiol and the deltatetrahydrocabinol strength and use are controlled and documented.
Published by Elsevier Inc. The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use.
Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory.
Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.
Each batch of our hemp oil undergoes high quality testing at three points in the production process. Because we take these steps, we are always confident in the integrity of our products - and you can be too. Full-Spectrum CBD oil includes all the nutritionally beneficial compounds found in the hemp plant. It is extracted oil that has not been decarboxylated and therefore still contains CBDa Cannabidiolic Acid.
This means that the cannabinoid capsules within the Green Label, unlike the other labels, contain all the natural components found in the plant at harvest.
Although, we ask that you keep your bottle in a cool, dry place. When we discovered how CBD cannabidiol , the non-psychoactive compound in the hemp plant, could be incredibly influential for health, we set out to find the best seed, the best climate, and the best team of cultivation experts to grow our hemp.
The result was incredible - Fields upon fields of healthy hemp highly concentrated in CBD! Orders are shipped on weekdays via UPS. Orders made on weekends or holidays will be processed on the next business day. Customers from the United States and its territories can expect to receive their order within seven 7 to ten 10 business days; international orders may take four 4 to six 6 weeks, depending on destination.
Orders received after 1pm Pacific Time are shipped the next business day. Customers are responsible for checking their shipment for damage at time of delivery. Claims for product damaged during shipping must be made within 72 hours of receipt.
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