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anxiety effective biologically/chemically disorders? for CBD it (Cannabidiol a placebo, Is oil is or



  • anxiety effective biologically/chemically disorders? for CBD it (Cannabidiol a placebo, Is oil is or
  • What is CBD?
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  • People use it for social anxiety, and it's well know that placebos DO help in certain (but not all) cases for whatever reason. Is CBD oil a. CBD is a type of cannabinoid, a chemical found naturally in marijuana and Learn more about the potential benefits of CBD oil for anxiety, and whether it benefits for other forms of anxiety, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD) and Participants were given either an oral dose of milligrams of CBD or a placebo. After initially being discovered as an effective self-medication for Dravet Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is essentially a concentrated solvent extract made from Parkinson's disease [12], schizophrenia [13], and anxiety disorder [14]. .. of the Placebo Effect on Medical Cannabis and CannabinoidsGertsch es3.info

    anxiety effective biologically/chemically disorders? for CBD it (Cannabidiol a placebo, Is oil is or

    Novel categories of compounds have been patented for potential efficacy as selective CB 1 receptor modulators, including sulfonyl-benzamides [ ] and tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives [ ]. To the best of our knowledge, however, no findings on the action of these compounds in anxiety regulation have been reported to date. The majority of preclinical studies found that these compounds are anxiogenic at high doses [ , , , ] and ineffective at low doses [ , ].

    The anxiogenic properties of CB 1 antagonists, were unequivocally confirmed by clinical data on the psychiatric side effects of rimonabant. The significant increase in anxiety, depression and suicidality in patients under treatment with rimonabant [ - ], in particular, led to the withdrawal of the drug from the European market in October, As a consequence, several pharmaceutical companies announced the interruption of their clinical research on CB 1 receptor antagonists, including taranabant from Merck and otenabant from Pfizer , both in Phase 3 of development.

    Some of the anxiogenic properties of rimonabant and analogs have been speculated to be due to their activity as inverse agonists; as a result, the therapeutic use of newly-developed neutral CB 1 antagonists has been proposed, with the hypothesis that these compounds would not elicit the untoward psychological effects observed with rimonabant and its analogs [ , ]; this idea is supported by recent findings, showing that unlike CB 1 receptor inverse agonists, the neutral antagonists of this targets fail to facilitate the acquisition or consolidation of fear [ ].

    Few studies have actually evaluated the role of CB 2 receptor in anxiety and stress response. Some of these investigations indicated that the suppression of CB 2 receptor in the brain, through intracerebroventricular injection of antisense nucleotide sequences, elicited anxiolytic effects in rodents [ ]. In contrast, Garcia-Gutierrez and Manzanares [ ] recently described that the overexpression of CB 2 receptors reduced anxiogenic-related behaviors in the light-dark box and elevated plus maze.

    These premises point to the possibility that CB 2 receptor ligands may also play a role in the modulation of anxiety disorders. This hypothesis, however, awaits further examination with proper pharmacological tools. Several lines of preclinical work have shown that CBD reduces the effects of THC on several behavioral functions [ - ].

    In line with these data, CBD has been found to reduce the anxiety and improve the sensation of well being induced by an acute, high THC dose in healthy volunteers [ ]. In contrast with these data, a number of studies have shown that CBD pretreatment potentiated the behavioral effects induced by THC [ - ]. These actions may signify the ability of CBD to inhibit cytochrome Pmediated drug metabolism [ , ], which may increase THC blood and brain concentrations [ , ]. Of note, the anxiolytic action of CBD also appears to be bidirectional, as only low to moderate doses, but not high doses, have been associated with exert anxiolytic effects [ , ].

    The anxiolytic action of CBD do not appear to be mediated by benzodiazepine receptors [ ], but rather by 5-HT 1A serotonin receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis [ ], a critical component of the amygdaloid complex involved in the regulation of stress response. Accordingly, CBD has been shown to reduce amygdalar responses to fearful stimuli [ ]; this mechanism may be essential for the anxiolytic effects of this compound in social phobia [ ].

    Furthermore, CBD has been shown to elicit antipanic effects through the activation of 5-HT 1A receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray, a critical area for the modulation of emotional reactivity to stress [ , ]. The systemic administration of the endocannabinoid transport blocker AM Fig.

    The same compound was shown to attenuate marble burying a paradigm for compulsivity testing in mice, suggesting that this compound may have some potential efficacy for OCD [ ]. Interestingly, the anxiolytic effects of AM were shown to be contributed by both CB 1 and 5-HT 1A receptors [ , ], in a fashion similar to the potent CB 1 receptor agonist CP 55, [ ]. Additionally, AM has been suggested to act as a FAAH inhibitor [ ], although evidence in this respect is controversial [ 72 ].

    Chemical structures of endocannabinoid degradation inactivators. Although the possibility of targeting the endocannabinoid carrier for the development of anxiolytic compounds is appealing and has been targeted by a patent proposing these compounds as a pharmacological support for psychotherapy [ ], the elusive molecular identity of the transporter itself has greatly limited the studies.

    Furthermore, preliminary data indicate that AM elicits reward in animals and is self-administered by squirrel monkeys [ , ], raising the possibility that endocannabinoid transport blockers may be addictive. In addition to its anxiolytic-like properties, URB was found to exert also antidepressant-like effects in several animal models with high face and predictive validity, such as the forced swim, tail suspension and chronic mild stress paradigms [ 89 , , , ].

    The anxiolytic action of FAAH inhibitors has been suggested to depend on the enhancement of anandamide in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray [ ]; interestingly, however, only low doses of URB in the prefrontal cortex were found to elicit anxiolytic-like effects, through CB 1 receptor activation.

    However, higher doses ceased to elicit anxiolysis, in view of their interaction with TPRV1 vanilloid receptors [ ]. Furthermore, the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of FAAH inhibitors were observed only under conditions of high environmental aversiveness, but not under normal conditions [ , , ].

    Importantly, the psychotropic effects of FAAH inhibitors are partially distinct from those associated with cannabinoids, in that they appear to fail to reproduce the hedonic and interoceptive states produced by CB receptor agonists [ 89 ] and to induce self-administration in squirrel monkeys [ ].

    Taken together, these data suggest that FAAH inhibitors may be promising tools in the therapy of anxiety and mood disorders with a safer profile than cannabinoid direct agonists. This idea has been recently endorsed by several authors in recent articles and patents, featuring novel categories of highly selective and potent FAAH inhibitors [ - ] [ ]. However, it should be noted that recent data have recently shown that URB induce a number of side effects in rats, including social withdrawal, working memory deficits [ ] and impairments in auditory discrimination and reversal of olfactory discrimination [ ].

    The role of 2-AG in emotional regulation has been difficult to ascertain until the recent development of highly selective monoacylglycerol lipase MAGL inhibitors [ 35 , ]. Several lines of evidence have suggested that 2-AG plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of anxiety and defensive behaviors.

    Recent evidence has shown that this compound exerts anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and in marble buyring, at doses that do not affect locomotor activity [ 93 , , ].

    Similarly to the effects described for FAAH inhibitors see above , the anxiolytic effects of this compound were observed in highly aversive or anxiogenic contextual settings [ ].

    The neurobiological role of 2-AG in anxiety is still poorly understood, although several studies have shown that environmental stressors alter its biosynthesis and degradation in key brain structures controlling emotional regulation, including periaqueductal grey, amygdala and hippocampus [ , ].

    Interestingly, recent evidence has shown that the anxiolytic properties of JZL appear to be mediated by CB 2 , rather than CB 1 receptors [ 93 ], pointing to a potential implication of this receptor in the role of 2-AG in anxiety regulation. In light of the limitations of our current pharmacological armamentarium for anxiety disorders, the ability of cannabinoids to modulate emotional responses is extremely attractive for the development of novel anxiolytic agents [ ].

    At the same time, great concern arises from the protean role of cannabinoids on the regulation of these responses, as well as their misuse liability and other side effects. The identification of operational strategies for the employment of cannabinoids in the therapy of anxiety disorders is therefore a fundamental goal in psychiatry research. As outlined above, clinical evidence strongly suggests that acute administration of low doses of CB 1 receptor agonists results in anxiolytic effects, while excessive activation of these targets elicits opposite outcomes, following a reverse U-shaped dose-response pattern.

    This concept indicates a potential evolution in the search for direct CB agonists, in sharp contrast with the previous trend aimed at the identification of high-affinity CB receptor activators.

    However, recent preliminary clinical studies have shown that this formulation did not significantly reduce anxiety in fact, it was reported to induce a mild, yet not significant increase of this symptom [ , ], and that CBD did not appear to elicit a significant opposition to the effect of dronabinol [ ], plausibly indicating that a higher concentration of this ingredient or lower relative amount of THC may be necessary to elicit anxiolytic effects. A third, highly promising avenue for the development of cannabinoid-based anxiolytic therapies may be afforded by FAAH inhibitors.

    Unlike endocannabinoid transport blockers and direct CB receptor agonists, these compounds exhibit a number of highly desirable properties for anxiolytic agents: The neurobiological bases of this phenomenon are not completely understood, and may be related to the involvement of other FAAH substrates, such as OEA or PEA; however, recent investigations suggest that the lack of 2-AG enhancement ensuing FAAH inactivation may contribute to the lack of reinforcing properties of URB [ ], potentially suggesting a different role of anandamide and 2-AG in the modulation of reward; this idea is actually consistent with the recent finding that 2-AG is induces self-administration in monkeys [ ].

    A key problem concerning the potential application of cannabinoid-related agents and cannabinoids is the relatively little information about their long-term effects following chronic administration.

    Indeed, the subjective effects of cannabis have been shown to be typically different in chronic users as compared to occasional marijuana smokers [ , ]. Prolonged consumption of cannabis has been shown to induce affective sequelae, including alexithymia and avolition [ , - ]. Interestingly, tolerance has been shown to the effects of THC [ , ], while no information is available on endocannabinoid-related agents. Long-term administration of cannabinoids has been shown to result in a number of neuroplastic adaptive processes, including CB receptor down-regulation [ , ].

    Some of these phenomena may indeed be critical in shaping the different emotional responsiveness to cannabis throughout life and reflect a potential pathophysiological loop which may compound the severity of pre-existing anxiety and affective disorders.

    Finally, another important step for the employment of cannabinoid-based anxiolytic therapies will be the analysis of the vulnerability factors implicated in the differential responses and long-term sequelae induced by cannabis consumption. For example, numerous meta-analyses and longitudinal studies have established that cannabis consumption in adolescence is conducive to an increased risk for psychotic disorders [ - ].

    This association is particularly significant in the presence of other genetic factors, such as the Val Met allelic variant of the gene encoding Catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT [ , ], one of the main enzymes for the degradation of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

    Interestingly, it has been shown that the synergistic effect of COMT haplotype and cannabis in adolescence is more robust in conjunction with predisposing environmental variables, such as the exposure to urbanicity and psychosocial stress [ ].

    Another gene that may modulate the behavioral responsiveness to cannabinoids is Nrg1 , which encodes for the synaptic protein neuregulin 1. Indeed, the heterozygous deletion of this gene ablates the development of tolerance to the anxiogenic effects of CB receptor agonists [ , ].

    These findings suggest that the employment of a pharmacogenetic approach may be a critical screening instrument to identify which patients may be treated with cannabis for medical purposes without risks of neuropsychiatric side effects. Notably, the role of genes in the mental sequelae of cannabis may also be contributed by epigenetic factors, in consideration of the recent finding that THC induces expression of histone deacetylase 3 [ ].

    While studies on the biological determinants of different responses to cannabis are still at their preliminary stages, advances in this area may be essential to allow a personalized approach for the employment of cannabinoid-based therapies in anxiety and mood disorders. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

    Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun Simone Tambaro and Marco Bortolato. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Rich evidence has shown that cannabis products exert a broad gamut of effects on emotional regulation. According to the current classification of anxiety disorders in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV [ 2 ], the main diagnostic entities in this category are: Table 1 Current pharmacological strategies for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    Generalized anxiety disorder Benzodiazepines. Panic attack High-potency benzodiazepines. Post-traumatic stress disorder Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Tricyclic antidepressants.

    Open in a separate window. Table 2 Paradigms for testing of anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Unconditioned anxiety Tests for social anxiety Maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations for pups. Tests based on antipredator defensive behavior Mouse defense test battery. Other tests Novelty-induced feeding suppression. Conditioned anxiety Tests on conditional fear Fear- conditioned freezing. Operant conflict test Geiller-Seifter test conditioned suppression of eating.

    Chemical structures of the major phytocannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids In addition to phytocannabinoids, several classes of synthetic CB receptor agonists have been developed; among these families, the best characterized are the synthetic analogs of THC - such as the biciclic compounds CP 47,, CP 55,, CP 55, and the benxopyrans HU and nabilone Fig. Chemical structures of the major endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids Both anandamide and 2-AG are derivatives of arachidonic acid, an unsaturated C20 fatty acid with 4 double bonds, which also serves as the precursor for synthesis of other eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotriens.

    CB 2 receptor ligands Few studies have actually evaluated the role of CB 2 receptor in anxiety and stress response. Endocannabinoid transport blockers The systemic administration of the endocannabinoid transport blocker AM Fig.

    MAGL inhibitors The role of 2-AG in emotional regulation has been difficult to ascertain until the recent development of highly selective monoacylglycerol lipase MAGL inhibitors [ 35 , ]. Establishing non-inferiority in treatment trials in psychiatry: Sugiura T, Waku K. Chemical constituents of marijuana: Marijuana and the Cannabinoids.

    An overview of DNA methods for the identification and individualization of marijuana. Biochemical correlates in mouse-killing behavior of the rat: Involvement of reduced acetylcholine release in Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced impairment of spatial memory in the 8-arm radial maze.

    Characterisation of Cannabis accessions with regard to cannabinoid content in relation to other plant characters. Differential effects of cannabis extracts and pure plant cannabinoids on hippocampal neurones and glia.

    Evaluation of binding in a transfected cell line expressing a peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Comparative receptor binding analyses of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists. Pharmacology of cannabinoid receptor ligands.

    Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Curr Drug Abuse Rev. Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist. Oral nabilone capsules in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and pain.

    Expert Opin Investig Drugs. Gaoni Y, Mecbonlam R. J Amer Chem Soc. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor.

    Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Involvement of Gi in the inhibition of adenylate cyclase by cannabimimetic drugs. Transmitter systems involved in neural plasticity underlying increased anxiety and defense--implications for understanding anxiety following traumatic stress. Demuth DG, Molleman A. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain.

    Characterization and localization of cannabinoid receptors in rat brain: Charney DS, Deutch A. A functional neuroanatomy of anxiety and fear: Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: The Journal of neuroscience: Role of endogenous cannabinoids in synaptic signaling.

    Distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous system. Immunohistochemical distribution of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the rat central nervous system. Pre- and postsynaptic localizations of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Morishita W, Alger BE. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signalling at hippocampal synapses. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signals from depolarized postsynaptic neurons to presynaptic terminals.

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors drive the endocannabinoid system in hippocampus. Szabo B, Schlicker E. Effects of cannabinoids on neurotransmission. Endocannabinoid Signaling in Neural Plasticity.

    Pharmacology of Neurotransmitter Release. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: Walter L, Stella N. Identification and functional characterization of brainstem cannabinoid CB2 receptors. Neuropsychobiological evidence for the functional presence and expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the brain. Postsynaptic localization of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the rat hippocampus. Evidence for a new G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor in mouse brain.

    Heterogeneity in the mechanisms of vasorelaxation to anandamide in resistance and conduit rat mesenteric arteries. Evidence for novel cannabinoid receptors. GPR55 is a cannabinoid receptor that increases intracellular calcium and inhibits M current. Is GPR55 an anandamide receptor? Molecular characterization of a phospholipase D generating anandamide and its congeners. Biosynthesis of anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine by sequential actions of phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase D.

    Liu C, Walker JM. Effects of a cannabinoid agonist on spinal nociceptive neurons in a rodent model of neuropathic pain. Formation and inactivation of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in central neurons.

    Functional role of high-affinity anandamide transport, as revealed by selective inhibition. Biochemistry and pharmacology of arachidonylethanolamide, a putative endogenous cannabinoid.

    Anandamide transport is independent of fatty-acid amide hydrolase activity and is blocked by the hydrolysis-resistant inhibitor AM Characterization of the kinetics and distribution of N-arachidonylethanolamine anandamide hydrolysis by rat brain. Lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of arachidonylethanolamide, a cannabinoid receptor agonist. Molecular characterization of an enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty-acid amides.

    The search for the palmitoylethanolamide receptor. Cloning of the first sn1-DAG lipases points to the spatial and temporal regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. A role for monoglyceride lipase in 2-arachidonoylglycerol inactivation. Oxidative metabolism of endocannabinoids by COX Curr Opin Investig Drugs.

    Inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase as novel analgesics. Kim J, Alger BE. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 potentiates retrograde endocannabinoid effects in hippocampus. Selective inhibition of 2-AG hydrolysis enhances endocannabinoid signaling in hippocampus. Postsynaptic endocannabinoid release is critical to long-term depression in the striatum.

    Stimulation of endocannabinoid formation in brain slice cultures through activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Dopamine activation of endogenous cannabinoid signaling in dorsal striatum. Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis. Cannabinoids modulate spontaneous neuronal activity and evoked inhibition of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons.

    Di Marzo V, Cristino L. Why endocannabinoids are not all alike. Anandamide inhibits metabolism and physiological actions of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the striatum. Selective blockade of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis produces cannabinoid behavioral effects. Characterization of a novel endocannabinoid, virodhamine, with antagonist activity at the CB1 receptor. Hemopressin is an inverse agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors.

    Novel endogenous peptide agonists of cannabinoid receptors. A new look at the scientific evidence. Oxford University Press; New York: Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: Journal of opioid management.

    History of cannabis in Western Medicine. Pharmacological and therapeutic secrets of plant and brain endo cannabinoids. Historia general de las drogas. Substance use among young people: Latimer W, Zur J. Epidemiologic trends of adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.

    Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. SRA, a potent and selective antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor. Cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in a population-based sample of female twins. The American journal of psychiatry. Cannabis use and dependence among Australian adults: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

    American Psychiatric Association Press; Washington: Health aspects of cannabis. Hall W, Solowij N. Adverse effects of cannabis. Cannabis use and mental health in young people: Comorbid cannabis use and panic disorder: Do patients use marijuana as an antidepressant? Anxiety sensitivity and self-reported reasons for drug use. Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: Self-reported medical use of marijuana: Rates of psychiatric comorbidity among U.

    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: Testing the self-medication hypothesis of depression and aggression in cannabis-dependent subjects. Cannabis use and anxiety in daily life: Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders and their relationship to mental disorders: Posttraumatic stress symptom severity predicts marijuana use coping motives among traumatic event-exposed marijuana users.

    Often, therapists recommend pharmaceutical drugs that can have a psychoactive effect on the body not to mention how addictive and disruptive they can be.

    On the other hand, CBD oil is a much better alternative to these highly dangerous pills. A research published in claimed that CBD is a safe and efficient way of treating psychosis and has none of the aforementioned adverse effects. Owing to its psychoactive nature, THC usually has an adverse effect on the mind and may result in paranoia so be very careful when treating schizophrenia with CBD oil!

    In recent years, CBD and CBD oil have been used to treat a host of different physiological symptoms of numerous conditions. For example, common physiological symptoms of CBD include muscle tension, shaky hands, lumps in the throat, high blood pressure, and a faster heartbeat.

    In other words, the extent of these symptoms varies from person to person. The human body responds to pain in an unorthodox way. Here are a few of the most common physiological symptoms of pain. This is where the positives of Cannabidiol outshine those of any over the counter medication pill commercially available today. Anxiety disorders like social anxiety are extremely common in the United States as the Anxiety and Depression Association of America claims that more than 40 million American adults suffer from it!

    Apart from those, the following physiological signs have also been reported by licensed practitioners. Although no research paper has been published that shows CBD can outright fix these problems, there are a lot of positive signs. For starters, a father recently shared his experience of using hemp oil i. This informative blog post, in its entirety, can be read here.

    After anxiety, depression is perhaps the most prevalent mental illness in the United States with recent stats showing that 6. Thankfully, CBD has shown excellent anti-depressant properties due to its mood alleviating characteristics. To understand why this is so, we must first analyze depression from a chemical perspective.

    Without oversimplifying too much, most depression can be directly linked to a distinct lack of serotonin and dopamine. So, if we could normalize the release of these chemicals, we can, in theory, address depression before it gets out of hand.

    In other words, CBD has remarkable anti-anxiety and anti-depression effects! Insomnia is among the most misunderstood medical conditions in the world today. Most people think that just because they have difficulty falling asleep at night, they suffer from this horrific medical condition. For starters, insomnia is of two types;. For starters, the anti-stress and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD are well documented. These cannabinoids are a crucial part of an intricate connection of receptors called the endocannabinoid system.

    This biological network is tasked with regulating our mood, our appetite, and even our cognitive functions. This results in a higher degree of alertness throughout the day. Due to heightened alertness throughout the day, insomniacs tire more and are, therefore, more likely to fall asleep at night!

    In fact, most medical experts claim that by making simple changes in our daily routine we can significantly reduce the impact insomnia has on the body and mind. For starters, experts suggest that actively participating in physical activities like football and basketball and taking regular exercise can also tire the body and achieve similar effects albeit not on the same level as CBD. Similarly, try reducing your alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine intake to detoxify your body. The decline of our cognitive functions and our memories is a grim fear that many of us have trouble coming to terms with.

    Losing your keys is one thing but to not be able to recall some of your most cherished memories with your loved ones is another matter altogether. Scientists and researchers from all over the world have tried to crack this perplexing problem but to no avail. The team of researchers working on this project discovered that certain synthetic versions of the drug namely dronabinol and nabilone can significantly reduce the aggression and agitation of these NPS.

    For starters, the study was performed on a very small sample size. Secondly, there was no placebo control group in this medical study. And lastly, the duration of the trial was extremely small. While the term literally encompasses hundreds of diseases, here are the few of the most common illnesses people usually think of when they hear the phrase endocrine disorder,. Similarly, another research documented the correlation between CBD consumption and the reduction in endocrine tumors.

    The researchers involved in this project were able to determine that CBD has the potential to influence events at an intracellular level. Due to the stigma associated with the compound back in the day, this study was conducted on people who volunteered for the tests.

    Upon Results of radioimmunoassay highlighted that the test group showed declining plasma cortisol levels after placebo. However, upon the administration of CBD in the bloodstream, researchers saw a significant attenuation in plasma cortisol levels of their sample group. Even though the disease is incredibly rare as only 0. This is where CBD and its miraculous health benefits come into the picture.

    Cannabidiol has also shown remarkable potential for treating Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. In particular, scientific research conducted by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam documents the therapeutic effects of CBD on the mind and body.

    Similarly, another research team determined that infarcts i. Furthermore, these findings were seconded by another team of researchers. Moreover, regular users of marijuana and CBD also had a smaller waist circumference that the compound can be used to treat obesity another common endocrine disorder.

    This is further compounded by the fact that when a person contracts this horrid disease, their immune system deals irreparable and irreversible damage to the myelin. As a result, MS causes these nerves to become permanently damaged. Common symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis include,. What makes matter worse is that the outright cause of this horrible medical condition remains a mystery to this day.

    Thankfully, CBD the gift that keeps on giving makes it easier for patients to better manage their multiple sclerosis. Owing to its anti-inflammatory properties, CBD soothes the damaged nerves of MS patients which, in turn, significantly reduce the magnitude of pain that they fail. Another research paper has highlighted that CBD shows great promise in symptomatic therapy. In simpler words, this basically means that the drug can be used to minimize spasticity and make lives significantly easier for these patients.

    The same paper goes on to claim that MS can be used to reduce other symptoms of MS such as tremors, neuropathic pain, and disrupted bladder function. This gives MS sufferers more time to spend with their loved ones — a truly priceless commodity to those who suffer from this disease. Furthermore, there are also reported instances of CBD counteracting the development of experimental Multiple Sclerosis. In a nutshell, all medical research points towards the fact that CBD is a viable treatment option for managing and even treating multiple sclerosis.

    Furthermore, nearly all Spinal Cord Injuries are incurable, making them a grim and life-changing event.

    To understand how CBD helps people with SCI, we must first take a closer look at the functionality of the spinal cord. In its essence, this collection of the vertebra is used to connect our processing organ i. The spinal cord also facilitates sensation and makes us possible to move. That being said, not all SCIs are the same as there are distinct groups depending on the extent of the injury.

    In particular, most SCIs can be divided into two main groups:. Common symptoms of complete spinal cord injury include the likes of,. Incomplete spinal cord injuries may not be as bad as their complete counterparts but they can still cause a large amount of pain and discomfort. Common symptoms of incomplete spinal cord injuries include the likes of:.

    And these are just the physical symptoms of these heart-breaking and life-altering injuries. Thankfully, there has been a lot of research about treating SCI with CBD and the results are promising to say the least. The medical paper goes on to claim that CBD can be used to better the motor function of the patient and significantly increase their quality of life. The study states that CBD can be used to lessen the extent of the injury and make life much easier for those suffering from this awful condition.

    This shows that CBD is indeed a viable option for treating spinal cord injuries and could even be used in the near future to completely restore lost motor function!

    After the age of 40, the following symptoms are commonly seen:. While people are quick to point out that modern medicine has progressed by leaps and bounds in recent years, very few people acknowledge the dangers that it brings.

    With time, this more resistant bacterium multiplies and grows in number and the initial problem resurfaces again. This is a major problem because now the bacterium left in your system is more resistant to antibiotics.

    Now, the bacterium left behind in your system will be even more resistant to antibiotics. This is where CBD enters the picture. For starters, the antibacterial cannabinoids are well known and have been documented for thousands for years. The scientists concluded that the drug shows the exceptional capability of chemically altering the resistance of the bacteria to antibiotics, which essentially means that CBD could be the answer to the antibiotic resistant bacteria problem.

    Even though the medical research paper states that CBD can be used to kill this antibiotic resistant bacterium, the researchers were unable to determine the mechanism behind this process. Common symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome include:. That being said, using data and statistics, we can identify the common factors that may contribute to this disease.

    It then states that the activation of the CB1R receptor has a different impact on different parts of the GI tract. For example, the upper GI tract can easily be influenced by the CB1R receptor while the lower GI tract shows lower levels of susceptibility.

    The study claims that this unique extent of the impact is to blame for common bowel disorders like IBS, for example. A close, structural analysis led the researchers to conclude that the CBD can be used to reduce nerve pain and lower levels of inflammation in the gut two of the most common symptoms of IBS , which increases the quality of life of the IBS patient. The study highlights the effects of CBD on the intestinal biopsies of people who suffered from this horrible disease.

    Granted this study was done on patients suffering from ulcerative colitis, the results can be applied to IBS as the two medical conditions are very similar in nature! These fluids are then excreted from the body in the form of urine. The problem is further compounded by the fact that owing to the critically important role that our kidneys play in keeping us healthy chronic kidney disease can cause death unless the patient gets a kidney transplant or opts for regular dialysis.

    That being said, the most common symptoms of Chronic Kidney Failure include the likes of,. What makes matters worse is that Chronic Kidney Disease is just the tip of the iceberg as this disease tends to cause a plethora of different medical conditions.

    This leads to an improved renal function which essentially means that the drug can be used to improve the quality of life of those who suffer from Chronic Kidney Disease. In other words, more medical research needs to be done before we can say for certain that CBD improves renal function in humans.

    The researchers working on this study concluded that by making the blood vessels vasodilate, CBD significantly enhances the blood flow in the kidneys without elevating blood pressure , which, in turn, reduces the extent of damage done to the kidneys! A lot of this has to do with the fact that nicotine can stimulate the release of dopamine in the mind. Once the brain gets used to high levels of dopamine, it periodically requires more nicotine to ensure that it gets the dopamine it needs to function properly.

    Any reluctance to give the brain the dopamine it needs will result in intense headaches, mood swings, heightened irritability, and migraines that make it impossible for you to go about your day.

    This is bad news particularly for the people who know of the dangers of smoking and are desperately trying to break this bad habit. A recent study published in documented that the periodic use of CBD significantly reduced the level of cigarettes smoked by nicotine addicts.

    The biggest misconception people have about this study is that they interpret its results and end up believing that CBD is a direct substitute or replacement of nicotine i.

    It merely helps nicotine addicts reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke on a daily basis. Allow us to elaborate. The medical study mentioned above discussed the effects of CBD in a small group of 24 smokers.

    These people were then divided into two groups of 12 smokers each and given an inhaler to use whenever they felt the need to smoke. This is where things get interesting. This led the research team to conclude that CBD significantly reduces cigarette consumption in nicotine addicts! The case study, in its entirety, can be read here. Marijuana, also known as cannabis, has been used both recreationally and for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.

    But despite its many beneficial properties, it has always remained a controversial…. If you think medical marijuana is only effective as long as physical symptoms as complications are concerned, you have some rethinking to do. Packages arrive quickly, and the process is easy-to-understand.

    Here are the documented effects of CBD on the human body: Registration Are you already a member? What Our Customers Say About Us Our mission is to help people obtain their medical marijuana cards efficiently and quickly, so our members can access cannabis products right away.

    Here is what some of our customers are saying about us: Love the variety of products. Thank you Canacall for assistance! Studies on CBD and Cancer. To put it briefly, medical marijuana can help: CBD for Sore Muscles. Here are a few conditions that hemp cream i. CBD can be used to treat. Anxiety and Social Anxiety: Cancer Treatment Side Effects: Anyone who has seen a cancer patient or suffered from the disease themselves know that the symptoms of cancer include Anemia Loss of appetite Bruising Diarrhea Hair loss Fatigue Heightened anxiety This is where CBD really outshines and outperforms all other treatment methods.

    CBD and Breast Cancer: CBD Oil and Seizures: CBD Oil and Insomnia: CBD Oil and Schizophrenia: The Physiological Symptoms of Pain: Here are a few of the most common physiological symptoms of pain A significant increase in defecation and urination A significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure A significant increase in piloerections Tenser muscles Nausea and vomiting.

    The Physiological Symptoms of Social Anxiety: Apart from those, the following physiological signs have also been reported by licensed practitioners Blushing Sweating A weak and trembling voice Muscular ticks and twitching particularly in the neck and in the face Facial Freezing Although no research paper has been published that shows CBD can outright fix these problems, there are a lot of positive signs.

    The Physiological Symptoms of Depression: For starters, insomnia is of two types; Primary Insomnia: A medical condition that is not related to any other illness. Primary insomnia is most commonly caused by a highly stressful life, emotional trauma, and a demanding work schedule.

    A medical condition that is commonly caused by sleep disorders or other issues such as chronic pain and migraines. Secondary insomnia can be caused by a myriad of factors ranging from high alcohol intake to an overreliance on painkillers. Common symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis include, Numbness of the limbs Loss of vision Unexplainable and never-ending fatigue Severe tremors Disrupted bowel function Disrupted bladder function Electric shocks felt when the neck is bent at certain angles Slurred speech.

    People aged above 15 and under 60 are the most likely to develop this autoimmune disease Sex: People of Northern European descent are the most likely to develop this disease while People of Asian and African descent are the least likely to contract MS Thankfully, CBD the gift that keeps on giving makes it easier for patients to better manage their multiple sclerosis.

    In particular, most SCIs can be divided into two main groups: Complete Spinal Cord Injury: Common symptoms of complete spinal cord injury include the likes of, Loss of control over the ability to urinate Breathing troubles Muscle atrophy caused by the lack of physical activity Inability to feel pain below the point of injury Paraplegia Quadriplegia Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Common symptoms of incomplete spinal cord injuries include the likes of:

    What is CBD?

    B. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number. .. CBD has been demonstrated as an effective treatment of epilepsy in several clinical There is unsanctioned medical use of CBD based products with oils, . in various biological samples. .. THC also increased psychotic symptoms and anxiety. Dogs received each of two treatments: CBD oil (2 mg/kg) or placebo Hematology, serum chemistry and physical examinations were scientific evidence regarding safe and effective oral dosing exists. From the UHPLC- QQQ-MS data, peak areas were extracted for CBD detected in biological samples . According to the current classification of anxiety disorders in the fourth edition The chemical fingerprinting of hemp products has revealed that the two most .. a robust anxiolytic efficacy of low-dose nabilone in comparison with placebo .. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action.




    B. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number. .. CBD has been demonstrated as an effective treatment of epilepsy in several clinical There is unsanctioned medical use of CBD based products with oils, . in various biological samples. .. THC also increased psychotic symptoms and anxiety.


    Dogs received each of two treatments: CBD oil (2 mg/kg) or placebo Hematology, serum chemistry and physical examinations were scientific evidence regarding safe and effective oral dosing exists. From the UHPLC- QQQ-MS data, peak areas were extracted for CBD detected in biological samples .


    According to the current classification of anxiety disorders in the fourth edition The chemical fingerprinting of hemp products has revealed that the two most .. a robust anxiolytic efficacy of low-dose nabilone in comparison with placebo .. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action.


    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in It is one of some identified cannabinoids in cannabis plants, accounting for up to 40% of the plant's extract. As of , preliminary clinical research on cannabidiol included studies of anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient.


    Get the facts on CBD oil, a natural product that may ease your anxiety and boost your A chemical compound found in the cannabis plant, CBD, or cannabidiol, in the body's endocannabinoid system —a complex biological system involved in CBD shows promise in the treatment of anxiety disorders, according to a.


    Descriptors: cannabidiol; Cannabis sativa; anxiolytics; anxiety disorders. those of approved drugs to treat anxiety,11 although its effective doses have not been (an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors), in addition to vehicle (placebo). . Mechoulam R, Shani A, Edery H, Grunfeld Y. Chemical basis of hashish activity.


    Drug Caucus Hearing on Barriers to Cannabidiol Research (United States of cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main active chemical compounds found in marijuana. the use of CBD oil in young children with intractable seizure disorders of indications including anxiety disorders, substance use disorders.

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