Traditional Chinese medicine is a style of traditional medicine based on more than 2, years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands of years. TCM practitioners use herbal medicines and various. TCM, or Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a profound pathway to create the life you truly want to live, the life you were born to live. It's a timeless bridge that can.
Chinese medicine: Traditional
It has been proposed as an alternative and effective analgesic with few side effects 29 , rapid recovery to work 30 and rare complications Many groups such as the Committee of Complementary and Alternative Medicine within the American Urological Association AUA recognize the integration of non-conventional therapies into urological clinical practice.
Additionally, both public demand for CAM therapies and their testing and validation under modern scientific research patterns methodology has increased 35, In the literature, acupuncture has been described to aid in the management of chronic prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain as well as nocturnal enuresis 29, In stone disease field, acupuncture has been used for treating renal colic 28 and for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy SWL - related pain and anxiety 30,37, No statistically significant difference was noted regarding pain scores.
Acupuncture had no reported side effects. Forty-three percent of patients in AvafortanTM group reported minor side effects, such as skin rash, drowsiness, tachycardia and facial flush.
Neither treatment had any immediate effect on stone location. The authors emphasized that acupuncture may be particularly helpful in some selected situations such as drug allergy or fear of drug addiction, or pregnancy One hundred patients were prospectively enrolled in a randomized, double-blind sham-controlled study. A self-assessment Visual Analog Scale VAS was completed before and after intervention and rated the level of anxiety experienced by each individual. Auricular acupressure AA was administered with a plastic ball 1 mm in diameter, which was pressed on the relaxation point and fixed with an ear patch.
This point is located at the superior lateral wall of the triangular fossa . The sham group received AA at a sham point with no relaxing or anxiolytic effect in acupuncture Therefore, acupressure proved to be a useful measure for decreasing anxiety in the pre-interventional urological setting.
The authors proposed that minimal equipment and training is required, making it a technique applicable to any physician, nurse, paramedic or medical technician Similarly, Wang et al. An experienced acupuncturist performed auricular acupuncture intervention ipsilateral to patient's dominant hand at the Relaxation, Master Cerebral, and Valium points of the Ear and patients in the sham group received auricular acupuncture at the wrist, shoulder, and extra-auricular sham points of the ear.
Thirty minutes after initiation of the acupuncture procedure, all patients completed a second STAI. Patients were then sent to SWL procedure, before which they received a pre-anesthetic cocktail containing midazolam, alfentanil and metoclopramide.
During the procedure, they could also self-administer alfentanil through a patient-controlled analgesia PCA pump as needed. Liver 3 is located on the dorsum of the foot in the depression distal to the junctions of the first and second metatarsals, and Large Intestinal 4 is located on the radial side of the middle of the second metacarpal Needles were electrically stimulated under 2 Hz and 25 V.
Sham group received only a very superficial insertion mm deep. Standardized SWL procedure was carried out, using shocks for renal calculi and shocks for ureteral calculi. The authors concluded that a combination of auricular and body acupuncture decrease preprocedural anxiety and intraprocedural alfentanil requirements during lithotripsy Their non-randomized study prospectively enrolled 90 patients with a median age of They received acupuncture immediately prior to ESWL treatment.
Acupoints comprised a total of 9 traditional points generally considered either for analgesia, especially of the lower back Large Intestine 4, Governing Vessel 20, Urinary Bladder 23, Urinary Bladder 52, Kidney 3 or for anxiety related disorders Spleen 6.
Additional analgesic medication was given as needed to address break-through pain piritramide and midazolam.
ESWL was performed using a Siemens Lithostar lithotripter, Erlanger, Germany in a standardized fashion renal stones and stones in proximal ureter received shocks at a maximum of Ninety-three percent of patients expressed willingness to undergo any necessary repeated ESWL under acupuncture analgesia; and Average pain intensity reported was similar to the ones described for drug combination 1.
In small case series, Quatan et al. Acupuncture was performed half an hour prior to commencing ESWL and needles underwent electrical stimulation using a pulse generator set to 4 Hz. They reported satisfactory analgesia and no side effects concluding that acupuncture should be offered to people who would not otherwise be suitable for outpatient SWL services or those who request it Finally, Karamarz et al. Each group comprised 22 patients. A 2Hz stimulation frequency was used in acupuncture and control groups with a difference in shock intensity above 15mA and below 10mA, respectively.
Eighty hertz were used in TENS group. Shockwave energy was estimated by an index described by Schelling et al. Needles were stimulated manually until the patient felt the sensation as Qi numbness in that region. Electrical stimulation with Hz frequency with an intensity up to the tolerance level of each patient was given.
Achieved energy levels were statistically comparable between the two groups, although SWL protocols were not standardized. No difference in stone-free rates was found either. Both treatment regimens offered satisfactory sedation and analgesia and allowed the maximum number shockwaves to be given.
No side effects were seen in any patients who received EA treatment. Therefore, EA was proven to be an effective alternative to other forms of anesthesia and analgesia during SWL procedures Acupuncture is believed to stimulate humoral factors and neurological pathways through a specific point with a needle or with pressure which activates small myelinated nerve fibers that send impulses into the spinal cord, mid brain, pituitary gland and hypothalamus 45 , causing a measurable amount of endorphins to be released into the blood Furthermore, various neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine and possibly gamma-amynobutyric acid are known to interrupt incoming stress signals in the central nervous system.
Several studies have confirmed the ability of acupuncture to induce opiate-like peptides beta-endorphin, dynorphin and met-enkephalin in the cerebrospinal fluid and to provide pain relief The humoral mechanism can be inhibited by naloxone Neural pathways can be addressed through segmental and nonsegmental routes. Segmental acupuncture analgesia is produced by short circuits and non segmental acupuncture analgesia is produced by afferent signals that synapse on spinal interneurons and then project to higher brain centers through the anterolateral tract 48, The addition of electrical stimulation during acupuncture induces endorphin release that generates a more potent effect on the concentration of neuropeptides in the animal hippocampus and occipital cortex than manual acupuncture 50 which can be noted as an enhancement in signal magnitude in MRI imaging.
An autonomic response also occurs as evidenced by significant reduction in average heart rate during treatment Some studies also suggest that acupuncture treatment can decrease inflammation and relieve pain 52, Locally, intramuscular movements of the needle cause insertional activity, or depolarization of innervated single or grouped muscle fibers. These are micro-twitches that produce micro-stretch effects on the muscle fibers nearby, thus reducing the local pressure on pain-sensitive structures such as intramuscular nerves and blood vessels Chinese Traditional Medicine holds promise for its role in stone prevention through the use of Kampo herbal compound, though no evidence of dissolution properties exist.
Acupuncture has been demonstrated to be an effective adjunct in stone disease treatment both as an analgesic during renal colic or SWL therapy and for reducing pre-treatment anxiety Table An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each one differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics.
Source Book of Medical History. New York, Dove Publications. Citrate and renal calculi. Ayurvedic medicine and renal calculi. Chinese herbal medicines and their efficacy in treating renal stones. A traditional Chinese herbal antilithic formula, Wulingsan, effectively prevents the renal deposition of calcium oxalate crystal in ethylene glycol-fed rats. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology. The Art of Medicine.
The inhibitory effect of kampou extracts on in vitro calcium oxalate crystallization and in vivo stone formation in an animal model. Consumption of historical and current phytotherapeutic agents for urolithiasis: Bovine cases of urolithiasis treated with traditional herbal medicine, P J Vet Med Sci. A new method for the study of the formation and transformation of calcium phosphate precipitates: The effect of takusha, a kampo medicine, on renal stone formation and osteopontin expression in a rat urolithiasis model.
Ultrastructural immunodetection of osteopontin and osteocalcin as major matrix components of renal calculi. J Bone Miner Res. Effect of herb medicines for urolithiasis on urinary oxalate excretion in rats. Effectiveness of a traditional Chinese medicine, Wulingsan, in suppressing the development of nephrocalcinosis induced by a high phosphorus diet in young rats.
J Am Diet Assoc. Wu-Ling-San formula inhibits the crystallization of calcium oxalate in vitro. Am J Chin Med. Effect of Desmodium styracifolium-triterpenoid on calcium oxalate renal stones. J Tradit Chin Med. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture Brookline. Use of alternative therapies: J Pain Symptom Manage. Acupuncture in the treatment of renal colic.
Chen R, Nickel JC: Effectiveness of electro-acupuncture compared to sedo-analgesics in relieving pain during shockwave lithotripsy. Retroperitoneal hematoma due to rupture of a pseudoaneurysm caused by acupuncture therapy. Pseudoaneurysm caused by acupuncture: Fatal cardiac tamponade after acupuncture through congenital sternal foramen. Acupuncture as an adjunct for sedation during lithotripsy. J Altern Complement Med. The over-acting of wood will lead to over-restraining on earth.
Thus, we can see patients with transverse invasion of the stagnated liver-qi attacking the spleen. How exactly does stagnated liver-qi attck the spleen? How would this be diagnosed? What I am saying is — what is the reductionist understanding of these concepts?
You cannot, for example, understand how the body works just from biochemisty, or even from studying single cells. You have to understand how tissues, organs, and the whole body works together. Science, actually, takes the most holistic view of health and disease, for it attempts to understand how the body works at every level of organization, and recognizes the folly of ignoring any level.
You cannot ignore how the system works together, nor can you ignore how the individual parts work all the way down to their most basic components. Ancient philosophies of medicine, however, either ignore the deeper levels of function, or make up fanciful underlying concepts, like wood and earth, that have nothing to do with reality. The meridians transport qi and blood all over the body, link up the upper and the lower, the inside and the surface of the human body, response and conduct the information.
Except, there is no evidence that the meridians actually exist. At the risk of sounding redundant, they are as made up and fictional as the ether, flogistum, Bigfoot, and unicorns. The linking of qi and blood is reflective of the fact that the notion of qi is historically tied to blood , and techniques such as acupuncture and cupping were also closely related to bleeding techniques that we are more familiar with from Galenic medicine.
This leads to the next section on therapeutics in TCM. Of course they discuss acupuncture and also moxibustion and massage, but give very quick descriptions.
There is, of course, no evidence that acupuncture or moxibustion alters the course of any disease. You have to believe in the notions of qi etc. Even for symptomatic treatment the bulk of scientific acupuncture studies the evidence is weak to negative. Currently, there are over 12, types of Chinese medicinals known by people, including over 11, medicinal plants, over medicinal animals, and over 80 medicinal minerals.
Also, there are approximately 1 million TCM prescriptions found. This relates to my main point above — how could practitioners have sorted out the risks, benefit, side effects, interactions, indications, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of one million preparations without using any systematic scientific methods? This would be a challenge for a modern scientific institution, and would have been impossible for any pre-scientific society.
One has to either ignore this issue, or assume preternatural abilities on the part of TCM practitioners, at the very least making them immune to all the mechanisms of deception and bias that seem to plague modern ordinary humans. All of this background is just a long windup to what appears to be the main point of this article — the challenge of studying these therapies and ideas with modern scientific methods. Those of us familiar with this line of reasoning can see the massive special pleading coming a mile away.
They outline four challenges to scientifically studying TCM — that TCM considers overall health I guess rather than just one condition at a time , therapies require ongoing assessment and adjustment, multiple therapies are given simultaneously to work together, and there are multiple targets of therapy.
Let me turn this around a bit — assuming the premises of this reasoning are true that TCM must include these higher levels of complexity then it is true that TCM treatments would be difficult to study systematically. I would argue that the same features that make TCM difficult to study in a controlled setting make it impossible to assess in an uncontrolled setting.
So how, then, can TCM practitioners have any practical knowledge about what therapies work and are appropriate in specific situations? That point aside — it is difficult, but not impossible, to study such treatments. First, I disagree with the premise and believe it is just special pleading, an excuse for the lack of scientific evidence for TCM. In modern medicine we often use multiple treatments working together to address a complex syndrome.
Each individual component, however, should contribute to the overall benefit, and should be able to demonstrate its contribution in controlled studies. Any contribution too small to detect in clinical trials is probably too small to be of clinical significance. Also, even if we accept the premise that multiple treatments only work when given together, you can still study this in a controlled setting — by individualizing a holistic treatment plan and then giving it or a placebo substitute in a blinded fashion.
Finally, the cultural characteristic embodied in traditional Chinese medicine requires more consideration on ecological features of data in TCM when conducting statistical analysis. I would just point out that science — and reality — has no cultural characteristic. If something is true about the world, it is true no matter what culture you come from.
The point of science is to be transparent and universal, so that anyone doing the same experiment, no matter what culture they come from, should have the same result. TCM is a pre-scientific superstitious view of biology and illness, similar to the humoral theory of Galen, or the notions of any pre-scientific culture.
It is strange and unscientific to treat TCM as anything else. Any individual diagnostic or treatment method within TCM should be evaluated according to standard principles of science and science-based medicine, and not given special treatment. Novella also has produced two courses with The Great Courses , and published a book on critical thinking - also called The Skeptics Guide to the Universe.
Acupuncture Energy Medicine Science and Medicine. What Is Traditional Chinese Medicine? Steven Novella on January 25, Show comments Hide comments. Previous Night of the living naturopaths.
What Is Traditional Chinese Medicine?
Traditional Chinese Medicine is rooted in the understanding that everything is energy & all energy is consciousness. We teach you how to apply these principles. From acupuncture to cupping, more and more people are using Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to manager their health. Learn what it is. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) encompasses several methods designed to help patients achieve and maintain health. To follow are 6.