Seventeen years after Guyana introduced a positive, liberal abortion law, the government, professional bodies and civil society have together. Legal but Inaccessible: Abortion in Guyana. Fred Nunes. ABSTRACT. Seventeen years after Guyana introduced a positive, liberal abortion law, the government. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Legal but Inaccessible: Abortion in Guyana | Seventeen years after Guyana introduced a positive, liberal abortion law, the.
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In addition, in early , the Jordanian government suddenly cut health subsidies to Syrians from 80 percent to 20 percent, and the increased costs of medical care and medication present a huge additional burden for them. Although the Jordan Compact has somewhat improved refugee access to labor markets, the fact remains that in Jordan most professions are closed to non-Jordanians, including refugees.
Open sectors include agriculture, construction, and manufacturing. According to official figures as of June , the government had issued , work permits to Syrians. However, that number includes renewals of existing permits. Therefore, the actual number of Syrians legally employed in Jordan is likely to be much lower.
In reality, the majority of refugees who work do so in the informal sector, where wages are low and conditions are often difficult and physically taxing. To make ends meet, many families send their children to work instead of school. Many refugee women shoulder the responsibility of providing for their families, yet they face particular challenges in accessing employment. One-third of Syrian households in Jordan are headed by females.
Women whose husbands are not able to find work because they are too old or unfit for manual labor have also had to step in and find work if they can. It is common for Syrian women in Jordan to sell food they prepare at home or handicrafts they make.
However, in early , the Jordanian government issued instructions that have made it almost impossible for Syrians to register these home-based businesses. Registering a business means working legally and being able to advertise and market products freely without fear of being caught and punished.
Only 4 percent of the work permits issued by the Jordanian government to Syrians have been obtained by women. Although the vast majority of refugees in Jordan are Syrian, tens of thousands of refugees from Iraq, Yemen, Sudan, and other countries live in a difficult environment but are left out of most humanitarian assistance programs aimed at Syrians.
Refugees from sub-Saharan Africa face racism and discrimination because of their skin color and are more easily identifiable when working informally than Syrian refugees. These steps would make a huge difference in the abilities of refugee women and men to support themselves and live in dignity in Jordan, and allow their host communities to benefit from the skills and experience they bring.
Opening up opportunities for refugees to work legally and establish formal businesses would also help the government and the international community deliver on their commitments. A service provided by. ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since Learn more about ReliefWeb. The report concludes that the law is generating disputes and then failing to remedy them, and calls for reform of the divorce law to remove the concept of fault entirely.
The research was led by Professor Liz Trinder at the University of Exeter and is timely given the imminent Supreme Court hearing in the case of Owens v Owens , the only successfully defended divorce case in recent years. These claims cannot be investigated by the court or easily rebutted by the responding party, leading to unnecessary conflict and a system that is inherently unfair. Contested cases are important because the court has an opportunity to test what the two parties say, rather than simply being able to rubber stamp applications.
The researchers found three major problems. The financial, legal and emotional barriers to defence mean that the majority of respondents do not get the chance to put their side of the story to the court. Family lawyers and the courts generally discourage defence, seeing it as expensive, counter-productive and futile. Respondents are therefore unable to prevent being divorced on the basis of allegations that they think are untrue.
The law itself is causing most disputes that result in a defence. The majority of those who do formally defend the divorce are not trying to stop the divorce from happening. Instead they want to give their reason for why the marriage broke down. None of those defences would be necessary if the law did not include fault. Their motivations varied, but defence could also be misused by those wanting to avoid a financial settlement or trying to retain control over their spouse.
Even defended cases rarely end up in a court hearing. Only two cases in the report reached a fully contested final hearing, and the court allowed the divorce to proceed in both.
It is a rare defended case where the husband denied that the marriage had broken down and disputed the behaviour allegations. The decision is being appealed to the Supreme Court and is listed for 17th May. The current law does not work well for the great majority of undefended divorces or for the tiny minority of defended cases.
The researchers recommend removing fault entirely and replacing it with a notification system where divorce would be available if one or both parties register that the marriage has broken down irretrievably and that intention is confirmed by one or both parties after a minimum period of at least six months.
There would be no need for a further procedure for defence under such a system. The research The research is based on court file analysis of undefended cases, intend to defend cases and 71 cases with formal Answers to defend the divorce. The case file analysis was supplemented by observation of the court scrutiny process and interviews and focus groups with petitioners and respondents, family lawyers and judges.
Out of reach: legal work still inaccessible to refugees in Jordan
Abortion Abortion always legal but inaccessible – Roman Dutch Law, Abortion and Sterilization Act (Approx generally white woman got access – suicide or. I believe we went from “accessible or beautiful” to “accessible and beautiful” thanks to the law that made inaccessible websites illegal in. Stephanie Ortoleva, “Inaccessible Justice: Human Rights, Persons with Disabilities and the Legal. System,” 17 ILSA J. Int'l & Comp. L. (Spring ).