Overview. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin- dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes in children — Comprehensive overview covers diagnosis, treatment, complications of this insulin-dependent condition. Researchers aren't entirely sure what causes type 1 diabetes, but they know that genes play a role, as do viral infections. Whatever triggers its.
type 1 causes diabetes? What
If hyperglycaemia isn't treated, it can lead to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, where the body begins to break down fats for energy instead of glucose, resulting in a build-up of ketones acids in your blood. Diabetic ketoacidosis is very serious and, if not addressed quickly, it can lead to unconsciousness and, eventually, death. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Your healthcare team will educate you on how to decrease your risk of ketoacidosis by testing your own blood for ketones using blood ketone sticks if you're unwell.
If you develop diabetic ketoacidosis, you'll need urgent hospital treatment. You'll be given insulin directly into a vein intravenously.
You may also need other fluids given by a drip if you're dehydrated, including salt solution and potassium. Type 1 diabetes can lead to long-term complications. If you have the condition, you have an increased risk of developing heart disease , stroke and kidney disease. To reduce the chance of this, you may be advised to take:.
Diabetic kidney disease is identified by the presence of small amounts of a protein called albumin in your urine. It's often reversible if treated early enough. The aim of treating diabetes is to help people with the condition control their blood glucose levels and minimise the risk of developing future complications. The Department of Health has set out national standards for NHS organisations and professionals covering diabetes care and prevention.
The Diabetes National Service Framework was developed by diabetes clinical experts and patients with diabetes. Good diabetes care includes:. If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems. High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs.
High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels of your nerves. This prevents the light from fully passing through to your retina. If it isn't treated, it can damage your vision. Read about diabetic eye screening. If it's caught early enough, diabetic retinopathy can be managed using laser treatment.
However, this will only preserve the sight you have, rather than make it better. If the small blood vessels in your kidney become blocked and leaky, your kidneys will work less efficiently. Damage to the nerves of the foot can mean that small nicks and cuts aren't noticed, which can lead to a foot ulcer developing. If you develop nerve damage, you should check your feet every day and report any changes to your doctor, nurse or podiatrist.
Look out for sores and cuts that don't heal, puffiness or swelling, and skin that feels hot to the touch. You should also have a foot examination at least once a year. Read more about foot care and diabetes. If your blood sugar level isn't carefully controlled immediately before and during early pregnancy, there's also an increased risk of the baby developing a serious birth defect. Pregnant women with diabetes will usually have their antenatal check-ups in hospital or a diabetes clinic.
This allows doctors to keep a close eye on their blood sugar levels and control their insulin dosage more easily. The Diabetes UK website has more information about diabetes complications. Having diabetes means that you're more likely to develop problems with your feet, including foot ulcers and infections from minor cuts and grazes.
To prevent problems with your feet, keep your nails short and wash your feet daily using warm water. See your GP if you have a minor foot injury that doesn't start to heal within a few days. Retinopathy is an eye condition where the small blood vessels in your eye become damaged. It can occur if your blood glucose level is too high for a long time hyperglycaemia.
If it isn't treated, retinopathy can eventually cause sight loss. Read more about diabetic eye screening. If you have diabetes and you're thinking about having a baby, it's a good idea to discuss this with your diabetes care team.
You'll need to keep your blood sugar under tight control, particularly before becoming pregnant and during the first eight weeks of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of the baby developing serious birth defects. Folic acid helps prevent your baby developing spinal cord problems. Doctors now recommend that all women planning to have a baby take folic acid. Women with diabetes are advised to take 5mg a day until they're 12 weeks pregnant only available on prescription.
You should also have your eyes checked. Retinopathy see above affects the blood vessels in the eyes and is a risk for all people with diabetes. Pregnancy can place extra pressure on the small vessels in your eyes, so it's important to treat retinopathy before you become pregnant. Your GP or diabetes care team can give you further advice.
You'll be best equipped to manage your diabetes if you're given information and education when you're diagnosed, and then on an ongoing basis. This gives people the best chance of developing the skills they need to effectively treat their condition, maintain their glucose levels at a normal level and help prevent long-term complications. It also reduces the risk of developing hypoglycaemia low blood glucose levels. There are also several local adult education programmes, many of which are working towards the criteria for structured education.
Ask your diabetes care team about the adult education programmes they provide. For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher. The Diabetes UK website has more information and advice about your child and diabetes. Many people find it helpful to talk to others in a similar position, and you may find support from a group for people with diabetes.
Patient organisations have local groups where you can meet others who've been diagnosed with the condition. If your diabetes is controlled by medication, you're entitled to free prescriptions and eye examinations. Some people with diabetes may be eligible to receive disability benefits and incapacity benefits, depending on the impact the condition has on their life. People over 65 who are severely disabled, may qualify for a type of disability benefit called Attendance Allowance.
Carers may also be entitled to some benefit too, depending on their involvement in caring for the person with diabetes. Home Illnesses and conditions Diabetes Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes See all parts of this guide Hide guide parts About type 1 diabetes Symptoms of type 1 diabetes Causes of type 1 diabetes Diagnosing type 1 diabetes Treating type 1 diabetes Complications of type 1 diabetes Living with type 1 diabetes. About type 1 diabetes Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar glucose level to become too high.
There are two main types of diabetes: Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance , a condition in which muscle, liver , and fat cells do not use insulin well.
Genes and family history As in type 1 diabetes, certain genes may make you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. What causes gestational diabetes?
Insulin resistance Hormones produced by the placenta contribute to insulin resistance, which occurs in all women during late pregnancy. Hormonal changes, extra weight, and family history can contribute to gestational diabetes. Genes and family history Having a family history of diabetes makes it more likely that a woman will develop gestational diabetes, which suggests that genes play a role.
What else can cause diabetes? Genetic mutations Monogenic diabetes is caused by mutations, or changes, in a single gene. These changes are usually passed through families, but sometimes the gene mutation happens on its own. Most of these gene mutations cause diabetes by making the pancreas less able to make insulin. The most common types of monogenic diabetes are neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young MODY.
Neonatal diabetes occurs in the first 6 months of life. Doctors usually diagnose MODY during adolescence or early adulthood, but sometimes the disease is not diagnosed until later in life. Cystic fibrosis produces thick mucus that causes scarring in the pancreas.
This scarring can prevent the pancreas from making enough insulin. Hemochromatosis causes the body to store too much iron. If the disease is not treated, iron can build up in and damage the pancreas and other organs. Hormonal diseases Some hormonal diseases cause the body to produce too much of certain hormones, which sometimes cause insulin resistance and diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes in Children: Other Autoimmune Conditions to Watch For. Type 1 Diabetes in Adults: Why Is It Important? How Can the Pediatrician Help? Diabetes Guide for Older People The risk for diabetes increases with age, making diabetes common in older adults.
Learn how you can live better. Patient Guide to Diabetic Neuropathy Several types of neuropathy nerve damage are caused by diabetes. Learn about these diabetic neuropathies: Explains what nerves are affected in each type of diabetic neuropathy. Patient Guide to Insulin The purpose of the Patient Guide to Insulin is to educate patients, parents, and caregivers about insulin treatment of diabetes.
Patient Guide to Osteoporosis Prevention If you are like many people, you may think that osteoporosis—a condition marked by low bone mineral density, which leads to lowered bone strength and a heightened risk of fractures—is something you will not have to worry about until later in life.
We've put together 5 delicious—and diabetes-friendly—recipes. Breakfast, lunch, dinner—even an afternoon snack and a yummy dessert. This Patients' Guide will help you eat well all day long with our easy diabetic recipes.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They're the ones that make insulin. It is important to know it is not your fault that you have type 1 diabetes – it is not caused by poor diet or an unhealthy lifestyle. In fact, it isn't caused by anything. Many types of diabetes have similar symptoms, but types 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes have different causes. Less common types of diabetes have other.