Research has begun to demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD) has the potential to. CBD is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. ▫ As CYP3A4 metabolizes about a quarter of all drugs, CBD may increase serum concentrations of. CBD is a very promising new treatment method for many different conditions. Like any other treatment, though, there can be interactions with other meds.
and Interactions CBD Drug
You may also be able to ask your vet this question and get an answer. I hope that helps. Have you heard of unwanted side effects for taking cbd oil with biologics and methotrexate? The biologics and methotrexate have become less effective, either due to progression of my disorder or because my body has become resistant over the past 10 years. Thanks for your inquiry and I am sorry to hear about your condition. Unfortunately, I have never heard of unwanted side effects from this specifically.
I recommend to speak with a doctor as soon as possible. I will be starting something new shortly. Can I take CBD oil whilst taking 25micro grams of throxrine, tramadol, paracetamol and ibuprofen? Unfortunately I cannot answer that as I am not a doctor. Please check with your doctor or pharmacist. What I can tell you is that most people do not have problems with drug interactions and CBD. Still I urge you to be cautious and check with a medical professional.
Unfortunately I cannot answer this as I am not a doctor. What I can tell you from my anecdotal experience is that most people do not have problems with drug interactions and CBD. Remember I am not a doctor so my opinion is not professional. I would not think this would cause any problems but the best thing to do is just check with your doctor first.
I hope you found relief from them. I take other heart meds, I wonder if they would interfer with the CDB. I would definitely get this checked with your doctor. Can you recommend any veterinarians in the Seattle area that are familiar with the use of CBD oil?
I recently adopted an older dog with hypothyroidism, arthritis, and muscle atrophy in his hind legs. I would like to find a holistic vet to treat his pain and arthritis. Any recommendations would be appreciated, thanks, Claudia. I know a very good vet in the SF Bay area named Dr. Richter is who I would recommend.
If you are consistently noticing a negative side effect with him after using CBD, it may not be the right tool for him. I am sorry to hear about your wife. I cannot help you with this inquiry since I cannot provide medical advice. Hi there Just started the CBD last week. I also have been and still am on a strong med called oxycodone. Have had croniv back pain for over 10 yrs. Really serious fibro for over 30 yrs. I also take lerica. I have cronic pain most of the day and night.
One week with CBD , but no difference as of yet. Is it just time or increase CBD dosage? I am scared to ask my Dr.
Thanks for your inquiry and clear explanation. Sorry to hear about the pain. As long as you feel comfortable, you can increase the CBD dose to see if that would help.
However 5mg is generally considered a small dose. I think this will change soon. If CBD is built up in your system over a few days, can the residual still have an effect on how p metabolizes drugs? I have been taking Ambien for sleep and tried CBD. Took a large dose one day 30mg and 5mg 2x the following day. I ended up feeling drugged all day the following 2 days.
Rather than the 10 or we hours Ambien is supposed to stay in your system. CBD supposedly stays in your system days. Unfortunately this is beyond our area of expertise. Your best bet would be to speak to your doctor about this. Can I take CBB oil with my norco for post lisfranc foot surgery pain? I feel it will help wth the inflammation of the trauma. Sorry to hear about your situation.
I would speak again to your doctor about it and or get a second opinion from a different doctor. You can speak with your pharmacist as well. I appreciate your ethics in that regard.
I wish people would stop asking you to comment outside your scope of expertise. The question I do have is whether or not you can comment on how long it might take to notice the effects of CBD usage? Is it, generally speaking, something I would notice right away say, an hour after dosing might it take a day or two to notice effects?
Hey, thanks for your comment. I appreciate you understanding why I cannot provide medical advice. How are you taking it, in this case? Stupid if me not to give you all the information. My goal in CBD use is to reduce anxiety, which has become quite debilitating. If I have positive effects in other ways, so much the better. Great, thanks for the detailed information. It sounds as if you are taking a typical serving size.
I am pleased to hear you are working on this alongside a medical doctor. Most people experiment slowly until they find their sweet spot and what works best for them.
With an oral dose the effects are typically felt within 1 hour. Let me know if you have more questions and I will do my best to help. Hi, I was wondering why the THC is needed at all. Thanks for your excellent question. THC is not absolutely necessary. THC can have some side effects which people do not like. Hi me again, I have two other questions wondering if you can clarify to any degree. I have read some of the research lit on CBD and other articles that extrapolate this info, but I do not have a clear idea on two particular facets: CBD is known to affect the human cytochrome P system, at what dosage or level does this occur?
Much of the research lists extremely high dosage levels.. Is there a known level where the effects on the P system begin to occur in humans? Can or does CBD use lead to a tolerance whereby increasing doses are needed for the same effects — or not?
I appreciate you taking the time to do the research and ask these excellent questions. I lack the medical background to answer them. I am prescribed Solpodol and Paracetamol and when taking Palexia I seldom needed them!
Can you help me please? Thanks for your comment. But I can help you with general questions about CBD oil. Please consult with your doctor regarding medical questions and before using CBD oil. My husband has significant arthritis problems and benign tremors and would benefit from trying cbd but also must take warfarin due to having a 16 inch blood clot.
Is it worth the risk? Please speak to your doctor or pharmacist about this. We do not have the medical background required to answer this question. Please speak to your doctor. We do not have the medical background to answer that question.
Please speak to your doctor and pharmacist about this. Study has been done on anti-seizure drugs for CBD liver enzyme interactions. I found out the hard way as I was using CBD to taper off Zoloft no interactions and it helped tremendously until I suffered exploding head syndrome and was diagnosed with severe anti-depressant discontinuation syndrome and had to go back on 50mg Zoloft to stop the major brain lightening strikes.
Also had to go back on clonazepam so I could sleep until zapping stopped. I never stopped taking CBD 30mg So I started on a roller coaster of one day being fine then having benzo withdrawal the next day. Once I figured it out and stopped CBD it took a few days to get better as CBD has a long half life so it can take days until you get a static blood level of clonazepam. Time they take etc. Thank you for your question. Please speak to your doctor before using CBD.
Best of luck to you. Out of all the questions people have asked you seem to have the same answer. So tell me what is the purpose of your site. But I will always help as much as I can, with product related questions mostly.
No, you should not have to worry about any interaction with a medication you are taking since the topical CBD from the massage is not entering your bloodstream. The only interaction to be possibly concerned with is with something else you are using on your skin, though I never heard of anyone having a problem with this. Please speak to a doctor or pharmacist who can help you get that answered. My pain killers do not work. I am also diabetic on Metformin. I am desperate to have less continuous pain.
What can I do? I agree with your doctor. It would be best to speak with your pharmacist as they know all of your current medications. You pharmacist and doctor may also want to monitor you while you take the CBD to make sure there are no negative interactions with the medications you are currently taking.
Thank you for sharing such a important information, as rarely people know this use of CBD. We advise speaking to a doctor before starting. The problem is that CBD can alter the normal way your body processes the Warfarin, thereby changing its effects. Please speak with your doctor before using CBD if you are taking Warfarin. Your doctor may want to monitor you closely if you decide to use CBD to make sure there are no issues with a drug interaction. I take two meds for prostate ,desmopressin tab and finasteride tab.
I have arthritis and was thinking about cbd for pain. What kind of medicine do you mean when you say water pills? We recommend you speak with your doctor or pharmacist before mixing in CBD with your other medications.
Hi I had a disc fusion level 2 years ago and have been left with chronic pain in my neck which no medication seems to relieve I am on 3 different medications one being diazepam do you think I could try hemp oil while using these drugs Any information would be very useful to me Thanks Debbie. There is a possibility for a drug interaction between CBD and your other medications.
I urge you to check with your doctor first as they may want to monitor your blood levels of other medications you are on. Project CBD just released an excellent paper on drug interactions which you should download and check out. Hi thanks for your question. Project CBD has also released a new report on drug interaction for which we highly recommend you check out. Visit Project CBD to download the report. Can I buy book I am not professional I have some concern medicaltion issue with cbd oil interact issue thank you.
Click here to check out our article about the best books on CBD. Please let us know if you have other questions. We recommend you check that out over at the Project CBD website. CBD may interact with pain medications. Some people find this interaction beneficial because it allows them to take less of their opiate medications and avoid side effects and addiction to the opiate pain killers. Still I recommend you speak with a doctor and your pharmacist first, before using CBD.
I also recommend you review the brand new report just published over at Project CBD on drug interactions. You can go to the Project CBD website and download it for free. Let me know if you have more questions please. Unfortunately we at CBD School do not have the medical background to answer specific questions. My recommendation is to speak to a doctor or pharmacist for this specific inquiry.
Can I safely take CBD oil with these prescription drugs: I have been sober for over 25 years. Which is the primary trigger of my PTSD. Will it get me high? Thanks for your comment and question. CBD is non-addictive and non-intoxicating. Many people report that CBD does help with their pain. A more concentrated CBD product example would be a tincture or a capsule.
I recommend you speak with a medical professional who knows your current medications before you start using CBD. I am currently taking 2. My recommendation is to speak to a doctor or pharmacist for this specific inquiry about this medication and CBD. My recommendation is to speak to your doctor or a pharmacist for this specific inquiry about this medication and CBD. Thanks for your feedback. We always recommend checking with your doctor before starting to use CBD, especially if you are taking other medications already.
Hi can u take cbd. Many people do find that CBD helps them be less anxious. There are indeed some theories that CBD may have to build up in your system to get the most benefits. However I have never seen any evidence for this. Any known drug interactions with these and CBD oil? Unfortunately we at CBD School do not have the medical background to answer specific questions like the one you asked.
I have a friend who has the autoimmune condition Lupus, and wanted to try CBD oil to treat it. I got him a bottle, but he was reluctant to take it because: He wanted to discuss the issue with his doctor, but keeps forgetting to mention the issue during his last visit. The oil that I got for him was mixed with coconut oil, which he is allergic to because of his Lupus condition. He told me that he takes Warfarin, and is concerned about possible interactions with it.
What should I advise him. Would CBD oil be appropriate for him? Thanks for your great questions. I answered your questions below. Please write me back if you have more! Yes, he absolutely needs to discuss this with his doctor first. There are plenty of CBD products out there without coconut oil. Bluebird Botanicals CBD tincture is just one example. They use hemp seed oil instead of coconut oil.
He absolutely needs to check with his doctor first. The doctor may request to monitor his blood levels while he takes the CBD to make sure there is no negative interaction with Warfarin. Please be careful about this. Always talk to the doctor before starting CBD. This would be good to show his doctor. Unfortunately as much as our mission is to do our best to get all your CBD questions answered, we at CBD School do not have the medical background to answer specific questions like the one you asked.
The drug interactions which have been studied all occurred when CBD was ingested internally into the body. Hope that answers your question. My recommendation is to definitely speak to your doctor or a pharmacist for this specific inquiry about using Xanax with CBD. I found I felt a bit weird, a bit woozy and tired after the third day.
I take amlodipine for high blood pressure, levothyroxin for underactive thyroid and ibuprofen and paracetamol for the pain.
Would CBD have this effect? I have been told to avoid grapefruit when taking amlodipine. This is a serious matter and you need to seek the advice of a medical professional like a doctor or pharmacist. While we strive to do our best to answer as many questions as we can, we cannot help with medical questions like this.
I have late on set Asthma. The GP has found this to be difficult to control with normal inhalers and now I take alot of medication. The main drug I take is sterroids and this drug has many side effects if taken over a long time are numerous and life long. Its very hard to explain the pain associated with Brittle Bones and other conditions associated with sterroids.
I took the sterroids over 20years. I take this in 2 ways mg and 25mg fenanil patches and the rest topped up with oralmorph at regular intervals daily. I also take nefopam and paracetamol. I know all the complications like addiction and more from morphine and other pain meds. I want them to stop and go back to the person I used to be. I need to know the drug interactions so I can take CBD effectively.
Would u like me to right Down the list of meds or would it be easier to show me the list CBD interacts with. I think it would be a lot smaller than my list of meds. However we are not able to provide medical advice. In your situation I would recommend you seek out the help of a cannabis clinic and doctor who is able to provide medical advice for your specific condition and the use of CBD and cannabis.
Ok, These are my regular everyday drugs that I take. Please tell me if you see any problems with me using CBD and these medications. My major health issues are Rhumitoid Arthritis, Fibromyalgia, Osteoarthritis and my disc are collapsing. My recommendation is to speak to your doctor or a pharmacist for this specific inquiry about your medication and CBD. I have never used CBD oil, are they all equal? Are some brands more effective and safer than others?
There are many CBD brands on the market offering a wide variety of products. Most brands differ in their product line and speciality items. It all depends on what you are looking for. For safe products, you want to find a brand which provides you with good customer support and up-to-date lab reports for their full product line.
They should provide them to you. We have some of our favorite brands listed here and you can also check out the reviews section of the site. Hello could you please tell me where I can find the listing of drugs that interact with CBD? Please take a look at this link. Let us know if you found it helpful as we are trying to find the right places to send our site visitors to for the best information on CBD drug interactions.
Can a person on blood thinners use CBD oil topically without complications internally? The typical side effects of traditional anticancer medication, emesis, and collateral toxicity were not described in these studies. Consequently, CBD could be an alternative to other MMP1 inhibitors such as marimastat and prinomastat, which have shown disappointing clinical results due to these drugs' adverse muscoskeletal effects.
Two studies showed in various cell lines and in tumor-bearing mice that CBD was able to reduce tumor metastasis. CBD downregulated Id1 at promoter level and reduced tumor aggressiveness.
Moreover, to carry out these experiments, animals are often immunologically compromised, to avoid immunogenic reactions as a result to implantation of human cells into the animals, which in turn can also affect the results.
Another approach was chosen by Aviello et al. After 3 months, the number of aberrant crypt foci, polyps, and tumors was analyzed. The high CBD concentration led to a significant decrease in polyps and a return to near-normal levels of phosphorylated Akt elevation caused by the carcinogen.
Animal studies summarized by Bergamaschi et al. Chronic administration 14 days, 2. This effect could be inhibited by coadministration of a CB2R antagonist. The positive effects of CBD on hyperglycemia seem to be mainly mediated via CBD anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
In addition, treatment increased adiponectin and liver glycogen concentrations. CBD showed inhibition of testosterone oxidation in the liver. Motor function was also tested on a rotarod, which was also not affected by CBD administration.
Static beam performance, as an indicator of sensorimotor coordination, showed more footslips in the CBD group, but CBD treatment did not interfere with the animals' speed and ability to complete the test. Compared to other anticonvulsant drugs, this effect was minimal. CBD did not lead to adverse effects. In addition, psychomotor function and psychological functions were not disturbed. Interestingly, the CYP2C19 inhibitor omeprazole, used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, could not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of CBD.
Unfortunately, it was not mentioned whether this effect was mediated via the cytochrome P complex. Another aspect, which has not been thoroughly looked at, to our knowledge, is that several cytochrome isozymes are not only expressed in the liver but also in the brain. It might be interesting to research organ-specific differences in the level of CBD inhibition of various isozymes. Apart from altering the bioavailability in the overall plasma of the patient, this interaction might alter therapeutic outcomes on another level.
Generally, more human studies, which monitor CBD-drug interactions, are needed. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, CBD was coadministered with intravenous fentanyl to a total of 17 subjects. This was followed by a single 0.
This extensive tool tests, for example, 78 adverse effects divided into 23 categories corresponding to organ systems or body parts. No respiratory depression or cardiovascular complications were recorded during any test session. The results of the evaluation of pharmacokinetics, to see if interaction between the drugs occurred, were as follows. No effect was evident for urinary CBD and metabolite excretion except at the higher fentanyl dose, in which CBD clearance was reduced.
Importantly, fentanyl coadministration did not produce respiratory depression or cardiovascular complications during the test sessions and CBD did not potentiate fentanyl's effects. No correlation was found between CBD dose and plasma cortisol levels. CBD did not worsen the adverse effects e. Coadministration was safe and well tolerated, paving the way to use CBD as a potential treatment for opioid addiction. A Dutch study compared subjective adverse effects of three different strains of medicinal cannabis, distributed via pharmacies, using VAS.
The 12 adjectives used for this study were as follows: This strain showed significantly lower levels of anxiety and dejection. Moreover, appetite increased less in the high CBD strain. The review by Bergamaschi et al. This holds especially true for the extrapyramidal motor side effects elicited by classical antipsychotic medication. Order of drug administration was pseudorandomized across subjects, so that an equal number of subjects received any of the drugs during the first, second, or third session in a double-blind, repeated-measures, within-subject design.
This effect was caused by opposite neural activation of relevant brain areas. In addition, no effects on peripheral cardiovascular measures such as heart rate and blood pressure were measured.
A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 16 healthy nonanxious subjects using a within-subject design. The doses were selected to only evoke neurocognitive effects without causing severe toxic, physical, or psychiatric reactions.
The physiological parameters, heart rate and blood pressure, were also monitored and no significant difference between the placebo and the CBD group was observed. A case study describes a patient treated for cannabis withdrawal according to the following CBD regimen: Hepatic enzymes were also measured daily, but no effect was reported.
Naturalistic studies with smokers inhaling cannabis with varying amounts of CBD showed that the CBD levels were not altering psychomimetic symptoms. CBD might work to alleviate disorders of addiction, by altering the attentive salience of drug cues.
The study did not further measure side effects. CBD can also reduce heroin-seeking behaviors e. This was shown in the preclinical data mentioned earlier and was also replicated in a small double-blind pilot study with individuals addicted to opioids, who have been abstinent for 7 days.
One hour after the video session, subjective craving was already reduced after a single CBD administration. The effect persisted for 7 days after the last CBD treatment.
Interestingly, anxiety measures were also reduced after treatment, whereas no adverse effects were described. A pilot study with 24 subjects was conducted in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design to evaluate the impact of the ad hoc use of CBD in smokers, who wished to stop smoking. Pre- and post-testing for mood and craving of the participants was executed. Craving was assessed using the Tiffany Craving Questionnaire On day 1 and 7, exhaled CO was measured to test smoking status.
Sedation, depression, and anxiety were evaluated with the MRS. At day 7, the anxiety levels for placebo and CBD group did not differ. CBD did not increase depression in contrast to the selective CB1 antagonist rimonabant.
CBD might weaken the attentional bias to smoking cues or could have disrupted reconsolidation, thereby destabilizing drug-related memories. To the best of our knowledge, no acute studies were performed that solely concentrated on CBD glycemic effects.
Moreover, the only acute study that also measured CBD effect on appetite was the study we described above, comparing different cannabis strains. Growth hormone and prolactin levels were unchanged. Compared to the healthy individuals, the cortisol levels increased less after TSST in the 32 at-risk individuals. The CBD group showed less reduced cortisol levels but differences were not significant. Truly chronic studies with CBD are still scarce. Nonetheless, we also included these studies with repeated CBD treatment, because we think that compared to a one-time dose of CBD, repeated CBD regimens add value and knowledge to the field and therefore should be mentioned here.
These results are supported by another study described in the review by Grotenhermen et al. CBD was administered on average with three other drugs, including clobazam The coadministration led to an alteration of blood levels of several antiepileptic drugs. In the case of clobazam this led to sedation, and its levels were subsequently lowered in the course of the study. A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in by Mincis et al. Clinical chronic lasting longer than a couple of weeks studies in humans are crucial here but were mostly still lacking at the time of writing this review.
They hopefully will shed light on the inconsistencies observerd in animal studies. Chronic studies in humans may, for instance, help to test whether, for example, an anxiolytic effect always prevails after chronic CBD treatment or whether this was an artifact of using different animal models of anxiety or depression.
In a 4-week open trial, CBD was tested on Parkinson's patients with psychotic symptoms. This led to a reduction of their psychotic symptoms. Moreover, no serious side effects or cognitive and motor symptoms were reported. No adverse effects were observed and her symptoms improved. The same positive outcome was registered in another study described by Bergamaschi et al. The respective treatment was maintained for three additional weeks. This was the case for three patients in the CBD group and five patients in the amisulpride group.
CBD treatment was accompanied by a substantial increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement, suggesting inhibition of anandamide deactivation via reduced FAAH activity. In addition, the FAAH substrates palmitoylethanolamide and linoleoyl-ethanolamide both lipid mediators were also elevated in the CBD group. CBD showed less serum prolactin increase predictor of galactorrhoea and sexual dysfunction , fewer extrapyramidal symptoms measured with the Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale, and less weight gain.
Moreover, electrocardiograms as well as routine blood parameters were other parameters whose effects were measured but not reported in the study. CBD better safety profile might improve acute compliance and long-term treatment adherence.
A press release by GW Pharmaceuticals of September 15th, , described 88 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenic psychosis, treated either with CBD in addition to their regular medication or placebo.
Important clinical parameters improved in the CBD group and the number of mild side effects was comparable to the placebo group. Moreover, neurological and physiological examinations were performed, which neither showed signs of CBD toxicity nor severe side effects. The study also illustrated that CBD was well tolerated. CBD in addition to their regular epilepsy medication.
Another clinical study lasting at least 3 months with children and young adults with various forms of epilepsy, who were treated with the CBD drug Epidiolex, was presented at the American Academy for Neurology in In a few cases, severe side effects occurred, but it is not clear, if these were caused by Epidiolex. The largest CBD study conducted thus far was an open-label study with Epidiolex in patients mainly children, the average age of the participants was 11 suffering from severe epilepsy, who could not be treated sufficiently with standard medication.
Ten percent of the patients reported side effects tiredness, diarrhea, and exhaustion. After extensive literature study of the available trials performed until September , CBD side effects were generally mild and infrequent.
The only exception seems to be a multicenter open-label study with a total of patients aged 1—30 years, with treatment-resistant epilepsy. This led to a reduction in seizure frequency. It is therefore difficult to put the side effect frequency into perspective.
Attributing the side effects to CBD is also not straightforward in severely sick patients. Thus, it is not possible to draw reliable conclusions on the causation of the observed side effects in this study. This rating instrument comprised the following factors: This assessment instrument analyzes adverse medication effects, including psychic, neurologic, autonomic, and other manifestations.
Using various safety outcome variables, clinical tests, and the cannabis side effect inventory, it was shown that there were no differences between the placebo group and the CBD group in the observed side effects. The occurrence of various degrees of GVHD was compared with historical data from patients, who had only received the standard treatment. This resulted in lower resistin levels compared to baseline. The hormone resistin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance.
Compared to baseline, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide levels were elevated after CBD treatment. This incretin hormone is produced in the proximal duodenum by K cells and has insulinotropic and pancreatic b cell preserving effects. CBD was well tolerated in the patients. However, with the comparatively low CBD concentrations used in this phasetrial, no overall improvement of glycemic control was observed.
When weight and appetite were measured as part of a measurement battery for side effects, results were inconclusive. For instance, the study mentioned above, where 23 children with Dravet syndrome were treated, increases as well as decreases in appetite and weight were observed as side effects. However, in the safety analysis group, consisting of subjects, 10 showed decreased weight and 12 had gained weight. Both these factors were not controlled for in the reviewed studies.
This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al. First, more studies researching CBD side effects after real chronic administration need to be conducted. Many so-called chronic administration studies, cited here were only a couple of weeks long. Second, many trials were conducted with a small number of individuals only.
To perform a throrough general safety evaluation, more individuals have to be recruited into future clinical trials. Third, several aspects of a toxicological evaluation of a compound such as genotoxicity studies and research evaluating CBD effect on hormones are still scarce. Especially, chronic studies on CBD effect on, for example, genotoxicity and the immune system are still missing.
Last, studies that evaluate whether CBD-drug interactions occur in clinical trials have to be performed. In conclusion, CBD safety profile is already established in a plethora of ways. However, some knowledge gaps detailed above should be closed by additional clinical trials to have a completely well-tested pharmaceutical compound.
The study was commissioned by the European Industrial Hemp Association. EIHA paid nova-Institute for the review. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Jun 1.
Find articles by Kerstin Iffland. Find articles by Franjo Grotenhermen. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Relevant Preclinical Studies Before we discuss relevant animal research on CBD possible effects on various parameters, several important differences between route of administration and pharmacokinetics between human and animal studies have to be mentioned. Open in a separate window. The reality is more complex, because CBD is lipophilic and, for example, will consequently accumulate in fat tissue. These calculations were made with the intention to give the reader an impression and an approximation of the supraphysiological levels used in in vitro studies.
CBD-drug interactions Cytochrome Pcomplex enzymes This paragraph describes CBD interaction with general drug -metabolizing enzymes, such as those belonging to the cytochrome P family. Neurological and neurospychiatric effects Anxiety and depression Some studies indicate that under certain circumstances, CBD acute anxiolytic effects in rats were reversed after repeated day administration of CBD.
Psychosis and bipolar disorder Various studies on CBD and psychosis have been conducted. Addiction CBD, which is nonhedonic, can reduce heroin-seeking behavior after, for example, cue-induced reinstatement.
Neuroprotection and neurogenesis There are various mechanisms underlying neuroprotection, for example, energy metabolism whose alteration has been implied in several psychiatric disorders and proper mitochondrial functioning. Immune system Numerous studies show the CBD immunomodulatory role in various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes. Cell migration Embryogenesis CBD was shown to be able to influence migratory behavior in cancer, which is also an important aspect of embryogenesis.
Cancer Various studies have been performed to study CBD anticancer effects. Food intake and glycemic effects Animal studies summarized by Bergamaschi et al.
Genotoxicity and mutagenicity Jones et al. Acute Clinical Data Bergamaschi et al. Physiological effects In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, CBD was coadministered with intravenous fentanyl to a total of 17 subjects. Psychosis The review by Bergamaschi et al. Addiction A case study describes a patient treated for cannabis withdrawal according to the following CBD regimen: Endocrine effects and glycemic including appetite effects To the best of our knowledge, no acute studies were performed that solely concentrated on CBD glycemic effects.
Physiological effects A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in by Mincis et al. Neurological and neuropsychiatric effects Anxiety Clinical chronic lasting longer than a couple of weeks studies in humans are crucial here but were mostly still lacking at the time of writing this review. Psychosis and bipolar disorder In a 4-week open trial, CBD was tested on Parkinson's patients with psychotic symptoms. Conclusion This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al.
Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Cannabis und Cannabinoide in der Medizin: Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Molecular targets of cannabidiol in neurological disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: Distinct effects of D9-tetrahydro-cannabinoland cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing.
Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral cannabidiol when administered concomitantly with intravenous fentanyl in humans. Inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P CYP enzymes. How physicochemical properties of drugs affect their metabolism and clearance.
New horizons in predictive drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Royal Society of Chemistry: Human metabolites of cannabidiol:
CBD and Drug Interactions: An Easy Guide
OTHER NAME(S). 2-[(1R,6R)Methylpropenylcyclohexenyl] pentylbenzene-1 ,3-diol, CBD. . Show More · Read Reviews (47). A quick guide to follow to avoid complications from CBD drug interactions. CBD-Drugs Interactions. Today we are about to address a quite sensitive issue – the interaction of pharmaceutical drugs and cannabidiol. Although the CBD.