Cancers can be grouped according to the type of cell they start from. There are 5 main types. The most common type is carcinoma. Carcinomas are the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer. It starts in There are approximately 50 different types of soft tissue sarcomas. Get the basics on cancer from the experts at WebMD. are potentially life- threatening. The major types of cancer are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. They are relatively uncommon. Melanomas.
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Leukemia Leukemia, also known as blood cancer, is a cancer of the bone marrow that keeps the marrow from producing normal red and white blood cells and platelets. White blood cells are needed to resist infection. Red blood cells are needed to prevent anemia. Platelets keep the body from easily bruising and bleeding. Examples of leukemia include acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
The terms myelogenous and lymphocytic indicate the type of cells that are involved. Myeloma Myeloma grows in the plasma cells of bone marrow.
In some cases, the myeloma cells collect in one bone and form a single tumor, called a plasmacytoma. However, in other cases, the myeloma cells collect in many bones, forming many bone tumors. This is called multiple myeloma. There is no one single cause for cancer. Scientists believe that it is the interaction of many factors together that produces cancer. The factors involved may be genetic, environmental, or lifestyle characteristics of the individual.
As mentioned, some cancers, particularly in adults, have been associated with certain risk factors. A risk factor is anything that may increase a person's chance of developing a disease. A risk factor does not necessarily cause the disease, but it may make the body less resistant to it. People who have an increased risk of developing cancer can help to protect themselves by scheduling regular screenings and check-ups with their physician and avoiding certain risk factors. Cancer treatment has been proven to be more effective when the cancer is detected early.
The following risk factors and mechanisms have been proposed as contributing to the development of cancer:. Lifestyle factors Lifestyle factors such as smoking, a high-fat diet, and exposure to ultraviolet light UV radiation from the sun may be risk factors for some adult cancers. Most children with cancer, however, are too young to have been exposed to these lifestyle factors for any extended time. Genetic factors Family history, inheritance, and genetics may play an important role in some adult and childhood cancers.
It is possible for cancer of varying forms to be present more than once in a family. Some gene alterations are inherited.
However, this does not necessarily mean that the person will develop cancer. It indicates that the chance of developing cancer increases. It is unknown in these circumstances if the disease is caused by a genetic mutation, other factors, or simply coincidence. Virus exposure Exposures to certain viruses, such as the human papillomavirus HPV and human immunodeficiency virus HIV; the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS , have been linked to an increased risk of developing certain types of cancers.
Possibly, the virus alters a cell in some way. That cell then reproduces an altered cell and, eventually, these alterations become a cancer cell that produces more cancer cells. Cancer is not contagious and a person cannot contract cancer from another person who has the disease.
Environmental exposures Environmental exposures have been linked to some cancers. For example, people who have certain jobs such as painters, farmers, construction workers, and those in the chemical industry seem to have an increased risk of some cancers, likely due to regular exposure to certain chemicals.
Other exposures may occur in the home or elsewhere, such as radon a radioactive gas in some homes. The discovery of certain types of genes that contribute to cancer has been an extremely important development for cancer research. Virtually all cancers are observed to have some type of genetic alteration.
A small percentage 5 to 10 percent of these alterations are inherited, while the rest are sporadic, which means they occur by chance or occur from environmental exposures usually over many years.
There are three main types of genes that can affect cell growth, and are altered mutated in certain types of cancers, including the following:. Oncogenes These genes regulate the normal growth of cells, causing them to grow. Scientists commonly describe oncogenes as similar to a cancer "switch" that most people have in their bodies.
What "flips the switch" to make these oncogenes suddenly allow abnormal cancer cells to begin to grow is unknown. Tumor suppressor genes These genes are able to recognize abnormal growth and reproduction of damaged cells, or cancer cells, and can interrupt their reproduction until the defect is corrected. If the tumor suppressor genes are mutated, however, and they do not function properly, tumor growth may occur.
Mismatch-repair genes These genes help recognize errors when DNA is copied to make a new cell. If the DNA does not "match" perfectly, these genes repair the mismatch and correct the error.
If these genes are not working properly, however, errors in DNA can be transmitted to new cells, causing them to be damaged. Usually, the number of cells in any of our body tissues is tightly controlled so that new cells are made for normal growth and development, as well as to replace dying cells. Ultimately, cancer is a loss of this balance due to genetic alterations that "tip the balance" in favor of excessive cell growth.
Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for childhood cancers are different than for adult cancers. The main differences are the survival rate and the cause of the cancer. The five year survival rate for childhood cancer is about 80 percent, while in adult cancers the five year survival rate is 68 percent. This difference is thought to be because childhood cancer is more responsive to therapy, and a child can tolerate more aggressive therapy.
Childhood cancers often occur or begin in the stem cells, which are simple cells capable of producing other types of specialized cells that the body needs. A sporadic occurs by chance cell change or mutation is usually what causes childhood cancer. In adults, the type of cell that becomes cancerous is usually an "epithelial" cell, which is one of the cells that line the body cavity, including the surfaces of organs, glands, or body structures, and cover the body surface.
Cancer in adults usually occurs from environmental exposures to these cells over time. Adult cancers are sometimes referred to as "acquired" for this reason. The University of Kansas Cancer Center. Written by Patricia Boya and Patrice Codogno, this review summarizes the molecular mechanisms, physiology and pathology of autophagy. The role of autophagy in cell death and its links to disease are also discussed.
Compounds available from Tocris are listed. MAP kinase signaling is integral to the regulation of numerous cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation, and as a result is an important focus of cancer and immunology research. Produced by Tocris and updated in , the epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets including:.
Autophagy is a cellular process used by cells for degradation and recycling. Written by Patricia Boya and Patrice Codogno, this poster summarizes the molecular machinery, physiology and pathology of autophagy. There are two currently recognized forms of programmed cell death: This poster summarizes the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, necroptosis and cell survival following death receptor activation, and highlights the influence of the molecular switch, cFLIP, on cell fate.
Our Autophagy review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and physiology of autophagy, as well as the role of autophagy in certain disease states. The epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets.
Skip to main content. Cancer Types There are more than different types of human cancer - most named after the organ or type of cell in which they start. Cancer types can be grouped into broad categories, the five main ones being:
Cancers may be classified by their primary site of origin or by their histological or tissue types. cancer first developed. There are three main types of cell where cancer develops. There are five main types of cancer treatment. You may receive one, or a. Cancers are classified in two ways: by the type of tissue in which the cancer From a histological standpoint there are hundreds of different cancers, which are .