It's beyond strange that so many humans are clueless about how they We don't know, because the study to prove that any one diet is “best” for . Is it possible to be healthy without eating fruits and vegetables? Fasting is not more effective than limiting calorie intake every day. . We have no idea. Sodium is a mineral, so it does not contain any calories. Some companies, like Chipotle, have macro calculators where you can build your. It makes up the enzymes that power many chemical reactions and the hemoglobin that range for acceptable protein intake—anywhere from 10% to 35% of calories each day. In an analysis conducted at Harvard among more than , men and women who What are “complete” proteins, and how much do I need?.
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The proposal to indicate sugar added during food production, in particular, was brought forward by the FDA as a measure to counter the increase in per capita sugar consumption in the US, which over the last decades exceeded the limits recommended by scientific institutions and governmental agencies.
The rules for the new design were finalized on May 20, As of , the TTB does not require alcoholic beverage packaging to have a nutrition facts label. Since at least , consumer groups have lobbied the TTB to require labelling disclosing Nutrition Facts information. Packaging must disclose alcohol content in some circumstances. Mandatory information on the label varies by type of beverage, and includes: Health researchers have called for the mandatory labelling of food products with added caffeine , which is a psychoactive nervous system stimulant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Canadian health claims for food. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 24 November Packaged foods must list nutritional facts". Archived from the original on 31 October Nutrition Labeling; Questions G1 through P8. A Food Labeling Guide. See also Guidance for Industry: Food and Drug Law History". Retrieved 11 February Agriculture Information Bulletin Number Retrieved November 25, Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original on National Institutes of Health.
Archived from the original on October 13, The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health and Nutrition. Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 15 February US Food and Drug Administration. The Role of Literacy and Numeracy". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Disparities and Association with Health Behaviors". American Journal of Health Behavior.
The diet of early modern humans varied significantly depending on location and climate. The diet in the tropics tended to depend more heavily on plant foods, while the diet at higher latitudes tended more towards animal products.
Analyses of postcranial and cranial remains of humans and animals from the Neolithic, along with detailed bone-modification studies, have shown that cannibalism also occurred among prehistoric humans. Agriculture developed about 10, years ago in multiple locations throughout the world, providing grains such as wheat , rice and maize and potatoes ; and originating staples such as bread and pasta dough  , and tortillas.
Farming also provided milk and dairy products, and sharply increased the availability of meats and the diversity of vegetables. Around BC the Vedic texts made mention of scientific research on nutrition.
The Bible's Book of Daniel recounts first recorded nutritional experiment. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine. But they objected, preferring vegetables pulses and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions. The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial.
On comparison with the king's men, they appeared healthier, and were allowed to continue with their diet. The 16th-century scientist and artist Leonardo da Vinci — compared metabolism to a burning candle. James Lind , a physician in the British navy, performed the first attested scientific nutrition experiment, discovering that lime juice saved sailors who had been at sea for years from scurvy , a deadly and painful bleeding disorder.
The discovery was ignored [ by whom? Scientists would not identify the essential vitamin C within lime juice until the s. Around Antoine Lavoisier , the "Father of Nutrition and Chemistry", discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat. In George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for fowl survival. In the early 19th century, the elements carbon , nitrogen , hydrogen and oxygen were recognized [ by whom?
In the s Claude Bernard discovered that body fat can be synthesized from carbohydrate and protein, showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored as fat or as glycogen. Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease.
In Eugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. In , Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java , who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi, but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact. Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, demonstrating that food can cure disease.
Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B. In the early 20th century Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition.
In , Wilcock and Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan was necessary for the survival of rats. A second group of rats to which he also fed an amount of milk containing vitamins. In Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart conducted the single-grain experiment. This experiment ran through In Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin to label a vital factor in the diet: The vitamins were studied [ by whom?
In Elmer McCollum discovered the first vitamins, fat-soluble vitamin A and water-soluble vitamin B in ; later identified as a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy. Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Osborne — also performed pioneering work on vitamins A and B. In Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency, because he could cure it in dogs with cod-liver oil. Also in , H. Bishop discovered vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, and originally called it "food factor X" until In Hart discovered that iron absorption requires trace amounts of copper.
In he synthesized it, and in won a Nobel Prize for his efforts. In the s William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acids , necessary protein components which the body cannot synthesize. In Eric Underwood and Hedley Marston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt. In Eugene Floyd Dubois showed that work and school performance relate to caloric intake.
In Erhard Fernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin E. It was synthesised by Paul Karrer — From rationing in the United Kingdom — during and after World War II — took place according to nutritional principles drawn up by Elsie Widdowson and others.
In the U. Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid. In a Natural Justice study showed a relation between nutrition and violent behavior.
In a study found that in addition to bad nutrition, adenovirus may cause obesity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For nutrition science not specific to humans, see Nutrition. Overnutrition , Obesity , and Overweight. Underweight , Food security , and Epidemiology of malnutrition. Nutrition portal Food portal Health and fitness portal. A Report Card on Nutrition No. Retrieved March 31, Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition 2.
Nutrient Intakes and Physical Measurements". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry 4th ed. New York, New York: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies" PDF.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Kathleen Mahan; Janice L. Raymond; Sylvia Escott-Stump Krausw's Food and the Nutrition Care Process 13th ed. An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology 5th ed. Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 8 October Acta Biol Med Ger. The World Bank Research Observer. The American College Health Association". Journal of American College Health. Journal of Public Economics. Chronicle of Higher Education. The vertical integration of food for thought". Cancer no longer rare in poorer countries". Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. Geneva, World Health Organization. Rapid progress in child survival".
Retrieved 28 May World health statistics An updated systematic analysis for with time trends since ". Global Burden of Disease Study". Explicit use of et al. The achievable imperative for global progress. The state of food insecurity in the world Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition.
Global financial and economic crisis — The most vulnerable are at increased risk of hunger and malnutrition. United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition. Global Monitoring Report Food prices, nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals.
Global status report on noncommunicable diseases ". A guide for program managers. Assessment, prevention, and control. Worldwide prevalence of anemia — WHO global database of anemia. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc.
The amounts of this rarely used dye that one might consume, even from eating marmalade, are so small that the risk is not worth worrying about. A industry-sponsored study gave hints of bladder and testes tumors in male rats, but FDA re-analyzed the data using other statistical tests and concluded that the dye was safe. Fortunately, this possibly carcinogenic dye is not widely used. Approved for use only in sausage casings, high doses of this dye are harmful to the liver and bile duct.
However, that is not worrisome because Orange B has not been used for many years. The evidence that this dye caused thyroid tumors in rats is "convincing," according to a review committee report requested by FDA. FDA's recommendation that the dye be banned was overruled by pressure from the cherry industry and the U.
Red 3 used to color maraschino cherries, but it has been replaced there by the less controversial Red 40 dye. It is still used in a smattering of foods ranging from cake icing to fruit roll-ups to chewing gum. Soda pop, candy, gelatin desserts, pastries, pet food, sausage. The most widely used food dye. While this is one of the most-tested food dyes, the key mouse tests were flawed and inconclusive.
An FDA review committee acknowledged problems, but said evidence of harm was not "consistent" or "substantial. Like other dyes, Red 40 is used mainly in junk foods. Gelatin dessert, candy, pet food, baked goods.
The second-most-widely used coloring causes allergy-like hypersensitivity reactions, primarily in aspirin-sensitive persons, and triggers hyperactivity in some children. It may be contaminated with such cancer-causing substances as benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl or chemicals that the body converts to those substances. Industry-sponsored animal tests indicated that this dye, the third-most-widely-used, causes tumors of the adrenal gland and kidney.
In addition, small amounts of several carcinogens, such as 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine or chemicals that the body converts to those substances , contaminate Yellow 6. However, the FDA reviewed those data and found reasons to conclude that Yellow 6 does not pose a significant cancer risk to humans. Yellow 6 may cause occasional, but sometimes-severe, hypersensitivity reactions.
Hundreds of chemicals are used to mimic natural flavors; many may be used in a single flavoring, such as for cherry soda. Most flavoring chemicals also occur in nature and are probably safe, but FDA does not review their safety, and a few have been shown to cause cancer in animals and should not be permitted.
In , after CSPI and other organizations petitioned FDA, the Agency banned seven synthetic carcinogenic flavors, based primarily on evidence from government-sponsored studies in animals. Flavors are used almost exclusively in junk foods. Their use indicates that the real thing often fruit has been left out. Companies keep the identity of artificial and natural flavorings a deep secret and are not required to list them on food labels.
That secrecy is unfortunate, because some people may be allergic or sensitive to certain flavoring ingredients, such as sesame, or MSG or HVP, and vegetarians and others may not want to consume flavors that are derived from animals. Artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are used in a wide range of foods to provide sweetness without or with fewer calories. Controversies have swirled around most of the artificial sweeteners. The artificial sweetener neotame and the natural "high-potency" sweeteners rebiana and thaumatin appear to be safe.
But research on all of them is relatively limited. For instance, a study found that artificially sweetened drinks probably caused preterm deliveries; the researchers suspected that aspartame was the culprit.
Synthetic high-potency sweeteners were the rule until about when rebiana, which is purified out of stevia leaves, became marketed widely in the United States. Rebiana, which has "taste challenges," allowed companies to claim "all natural" on their artificially sweetened with a "natural ingredient," that is products. Sugar alcohols are sugar-free and alcohol-free sweeteners. Some occur in plants, but are typically manufactured. Most have about half as many calories as sugar, though erythritol has one-twentieth as many.
They appear to be safe, except that large amounts of most of them may have a laxative effect erythritol does not cause diarrhea, but may cause nausea. Companies advertise their artificially sweetened foods as being almost magical weight-loss potions. The fact is, though, that losing weight is difficult, and people need to make a real concerted effort to eat fewer calories and exercise more.
Artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes can make the struggle a little more pleasant. Antioxidant, nutrient, color stabilizer: Cereals, fruit drinks, cured meats. Vitamin C is also used to pump up the vitamin content of foods like "fruit" drinks and breakfast cereals.
It also helps prevent loss of color and flavor in foods by reacting with unwanted oxygen. Though heroic amounts of ascorbic acid were recommended by Dr. Linus Pauling as a cure for common cold, subsequent research found only that it might slightly reduce the severity of colds. Ascorbyl palmitate is a fat-soluble antioxidant formed by combining ascorbic acid vitamin C with palmitic acid derived from fat. Studies indicate that ascorbyl palmitate is completely metabolized, the ascorbic acid becoming available as vitamin C, and the palmitate portion is converted to energy or fat.
Though palmitate from palm and other vegetable oils can increase blood cholesterol levels, the amount derived from this additive is trivial. Aspartame sometimes marketed under the brand names Equal, NutraSweet, or AminoSweet is a chemical combination of two amino acids and methanol. Questions of cancer and neurological problems, such as dizziness or hallucinations, have swirled around aspartame for decades.
A key s industry-sponsored study initially sparked concerns that aspartame caused brain tumors in rats, but the FDA convinced an independent review panel to reverse its conclusion that aspartame was unsafe. The agency then approved its use in for use as a tabletop packaged sweetener and in breakfast cereals, powdered beverage mixes, and other dry packaged foods.
Two years later FDA approved aspartame for use in soft drinks, by far the biggest and most lucrative market. Aspartame dominates the diet soft drink market, and the overall market for artificial sweetener, although its use is declining. The California Environmental Protection Agency and others have urged that independent scientists conduct new animal studies to resolve the cancer question. In , researchers at the Ramazzini Foundation in Bologna, Italy, conducted the first such study.
The study found that rats exposed to aspartame starting at eight weeks of age and continuing through their entire lifetimes developed lymphomas, leukemias, and other tumors, including kidney tumors, which are extremely rare in the strain of rat used. In , the same researchers published a follow-up study that exposed rats to aspartame beginning in the womb and continuing through their entire lifetimes. Then in , they published a study that exposed mice to aspartame , starting in the womb and continuing throughout their entire lifetimes.
That third study found that aspartame caused liver and lung cancer in male mice. Those new studies may have found problems that earlier company-sponsored studies did not because the newer studies used far more animals and thus were more capable of detecting adverse effects. Also, the Italian researchers monitored the animals for their entire lifetimes: Two-year-old rats are roughly equivalent to year-old people.
Furthermore, two of the new studies included exposure before birth, which increased their ability to detect cancer only one of the industry studies did. The food industry, FDA, and the European Food Safety Authority contest the Italian findings, pointing to what they consider serious flaws in the design and conduct of the study and evaluation of the results. However, scientists at the Center for Science in the Public Interest and elsewhere , citing evaluations sponsored by the U. As one defense of aspartame, industry and FDA point to a human study by U.
National Cancer Institute researchers. That study involved a large number of adults 50 to 71 years of age over a five-year period. The study did not find any evidence that aspartame posed a risk.
However, the NCI study had three major limitations: Meanwhile, the most careful long-term study of aspartame in humans , conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health, found the first human evidence that aspartame poses a slightly increased cancer risk to men, but not women.
The researchers speculated that that might be due to the fact that men have higher levels of an enzyme that converts methanol a breakdown product of aspartame to formaldehyde, a human carcinogen. The Harvard study couldn't prove that aspartame was a carcinogen, but it certainly added to the safety concerns, especially since the cancers observed in the human study multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were similar to the cancers observed in two of the three animal studies leukemias and lymphomas.
Another study by researchers with the American Cancer Society, not quite as large as the Harvard study, did not find any link. A recent review of all of the evidence by the scientists who conducted the three positive animal studies urges governments to re-examine their positions on aspartame, and recommends that pregnant women and children not consume aspartame.
The bottom line is that three independent studies have found that consumption of aspartame causes cancer in rodents, and one epidemiology study found evidence that aspartame increases the risk of cancer in men.
That should be reason enough for the FDA and other governments to eliminate aspartame from the food supply. Meanwhile, consumers should read labels carefully and avoid this artificial sweetener. Another concern about aspartame emerged in , when Danish researchers linked the consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks, but not sugar-sweetened soft drinks, to preterm delivery of babies. In another study, this time conducted in Norway, corroborated that finding.
However, it also found a link between sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery. The fact that two large, independent studies found a link between artificially sweetened beverages and preterm delivery is troubling.
Since aspartame was first used, some people have contended that it causes headaches or dizziness. Some small studies have documented that finding, while others did not.
Anyone experiencing such problems should simply avoid aspartame. Autolyzed yeast extract is a flavoring agent made from yeast, usually the same kind used to make bread rise or ferment beer. Generally, the yeast is heated or otherwise killed in a way that allows enzymes inside the cells break down the yeast, including the proteins. Other types of yeast extracts are made by adding enzymes, rather than using the enzymes already present inside the yeast cell.
Some people who have allergic reactions to inhaling molds also react to ingesting yeast or yeast extracts. All proteins are made up of amino acids, and one amino acid of interest—glutamic acid—is present in autolyzed yeast extract, as well as in many other foods and in our bodies.
A small number of people experience headache, numbness, flushing, tingling, or other short-term symptoms when consuming large amounts of MSG. Autolyzed yeast extract is sometimes used to substitute for MSG, but has much lower levels of glutamate so adverse reactions are unlikely. Foods such as Parmesan cheese, seaweed, dried shitake mushrooms, and dried tomatoes naturally contain relatively high levels of glutamate, and so could also potentially be a problem for individuals sensitive to MSG, although that does not seem to be the case.
Flour improver and bleaching agent: Flour, bread and rolls. Azodicarbonamide ADC has long been used by commercial bakers to strengthen dough, but has been poorly tested. A review published by several United Nations agencies concluded that "There are no adequate data relating to carcinogenic, reproductive, or developmental effects, hence it is not possible to evaluate the risk to human health for these endpoints.
Most of the concern about ADC relates to two suspicious chemicals that form when bread is baked. The first chemical is semicarbazide SEM , which caused cancers of the lung and blood vessels in mice. It did not cause cancer in rats. In the International Agency for Research on Cancer considered SEM to be a carcinogen in mice, but in concluded that the animal data were "limited" and that SEM was "not classifiable" as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
A second breakdown product, urethane, is a recognized carcinogen. ADC used at its maximum allowable level 45 ppm in bread leads to levels of urethane in bread that pose a small risk to humans.
Toasting that bread increases the amount of urethane. However, when used at 20 ppm, which may be the amount used by some commercial bakeries, a FDA study found "only a slight increase" in urethane.
Some urethane forms in bread not made with azodicarbonamide. Considering that many breads don't contain azodicarbonamide and that its use slightly increases exposure to a carcinogen, this is hardly a chemical that we need in our food supply.
It appears that the Delaney amendment, which bars the use of additives that cause cancer in humans or animals, would require FDA to bar its use. At the very least, FDA should reduce the amount allowed to be used. Margarine, shortening, non-dairy whiteners, beverages, breakfast cereals, supplements.
Beta-carotene is used as an artificial coloring and a nutrient supplement. The body converts it to Vitamin A, which is part of the light-detection mechanism of the eye and which helps maintain the normal condition of mucous membranes.
Large amounts of beta-carotene in the form of dietary supplements increased the risk of lung cancer in smokers and did not reduce the risk in non-smokers.
Smokers should certainly not take beta-carotene supplements, but the small amounts used as food additives are safe. Natural high-potency sweetener Brazzein has not yet been approved as a food additive, but some food manufacturers see it as a better-tasting alternative to stevia-derived rebiana.
Brazzein is a small 54 amino acids protein molecule that occurs naturally in the berries of a climbing vine found in West Africa, where it has been consumed by people and animals. It is about 1, times sweeter than sugar, but, as far as we can determine, it has not been tested for safety. Because it is a protein, it might cause food allergies. One company is planning to market the sweetener under the name Cweet. BVO keeps flavor oils in suspension, giving a cloudy appearance to citrus-flavored soft drinks such as Mountain Dew and Fanta Orange.
Decades later, BVO is still poorly tested and remains on the interim list. Health concerns start with the finding that eating BVO leaves residues in body fat and the fat in brain, liver, and other organs. Indeed, doctors have identified bromine toxicity in two people who drank extremely large amounts of such sodas. Sensitive, modern studies are urgently needed to better understand the risk, especially at the lower levels typically consumed by large numbers of children.
Meanwhile, BVO should not be used it is not permitted in Europe. Cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, vegetable oil. BHA retards rancidity in fats, oils, and oil-containing foods.
While some studies indicate it is safe, other studies demonstrate that it causes cancer in rats, mice, and hamsters. Those cancers are controversial because they occur in the forestomach, an organ that humans do not have. However, a chemical that causes cancer in at least one organ in three different species indicates that it might be carcinogenic in humans.
That is why the U. This synthetic chemical can be replaced by safer chemicals e. Cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, oils, etc. BHT retards rancidity in oils. It either increased or decreased the risk of cancer in various animal studies. Residues of BHT occur in human fat. Avoid it when possible. Naturally occurring in coffee, tea, cocoa, coffee-flavored yogurt and frozen desserts. Additive in soft drinks, energy drinks, chewing gum, and waters. Caffeine is one of only two drugs that are present naturally or added to widely consumed foods quinine is the other drug used in foods.
It is mildly addictive, one possible reason that makers of soft drinks add it to their products. Many coffee drinkers experience withdrawal symptoms, such as headaches, irritability, sleepiness, and lethargy, when they stop drinking coffee. Because caffeine appears to increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriages, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and childhood leukemia and possibly birth defects and inhibits fetal growth, women who are pregnant or may become pregnant should avoid caffeine.
Caffeine also may make it harder to get pregnant. The less those women consume, the lower the risk. Caffeine also keeps many people from sleeping, causes jitteriness, and affects calcium metabolism.
However, on the positive side, drinking a couple of mugs cups per day of regular but not decaf coffee appears to reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, gallstones, and even suicide.
It also can relieve headache pain, increase endurance, such as on a treadmill, and improve alertness. The caffeine in a standard cup or two of coffee is harmless to most people.
But be aware that a middle-size 16 oz. That is equivalent to three old-fashioned 5-ounce-cups' worth of caffeine.
Click here for a list of the caffeine content of beverages and foods. If you drink more than a couple of cups of coffee or several cans of caffeine-containing soda per day and experience insomnia or jitters, are at risk of osteoporosis, or are pregnant, you should rethink your habit. Bread, rolls, pies, cakes. Calcium propionate prevents mold growth on bread and rolls.
The calcium is a beneficial mineral; the propionate is safe. Sodium propionate is used in pies and cakes, because calcium alters the action of chemical leavening agents.
Dough conditioner, whipping agent: Bread dough, cake fillings, artificial whipped cream, processed egg whites. These additives strengthen bread dough so it can be used in commercial bread-making machinery and help produce a more uniform grain and greater volume. They act as whipping agents in dried, liquid, or frozen egg whites and artificial whipped cream.
Colas, baked goods, pre-cooked meats, soy and Worcestershire sauces, chocolate-flavored products, beer. Caramel coloring is made by heating a sugar compound usually high-dextrose corn syrup , often together with ammonium compounds, acids, or alkalis.
It is the most widely used by weight coloring added to foods and beverages, with hues ranging from tannish-yellow to black, depending on the concentration and the food. Caramel coloring may be used to simulate the appearance of cocoa in baked goods, make meats and gravies look more attractive, and darken soft drinks and beer.
Caramel coloring, when produced with ammonia, contains contaminants, 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole. In , studies by the U. National Toxicology Program found that those two contaminants cause cancer in male and female mice and possibly in female rats. In , the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a division of the World Health Organization, concluded that 2- and 4-methylimidazole are "possibly carcinogenic to humans.
The state lists chemicals when they pose a lifetime risk of at least 1 cancer per , people. California warned that as of January 7, , widely consumed products, such as soft drinks, that contained more than 29 micrograms of 4-methylimidazole per serving would have to bear a warning notice. In March , when CSPI published the results of a study that found levels up to micrograms per can of Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola purchased in Washington, DC, the soft-drink giants announced that they had reduced the contaminant to below California's threshold for action in products distributed in California.
They said they would market the less-contaminated products throughout the country, which Coca-Cola did in and PepsiCo did by The FDA has a limit that is 10 times as strict as California's for regulating chemicals that are contaminated with cancer-causing chemicals.
Even that much lower level might exceed the FDA's threshold for action of 1 cancer per million consumers. It would be worth avoiding or drinking less colas and other ammonia-caramel-colored beverages not only because of risk from the 4-methylimidazole, but, of course, because the products contain about 10 teaspoons of sugar per 12 ounces and promote obesity and tooth decay.
Soy sauces, baked goods, and other foods that contain ammoniated caramel coloring are much less of a problem, because the amounts consumed are small. Improve texture, stabilize foam beer , prevent fruit from settling, prevent sugar from crystallizing cake icings , bind water: Ice cream, beer, pie fillings and jellies, cake icings, diet foods. It is also called cellulose gum. CMC has long been considered safe, but a study funded by the National Institutes of Health raised some doubts.
In mice that were predisposed to colitis, the emulsifiers promoted the disease. It is possible that polysorbates, CMC, and other emulsifiers act like detergents to disrupt the mucous layer that lines the gut, and that the results of the study may apply to other emulsifiers as well.
Research is needed to determine long-term effects of these and other emulsifiers at levels that people consume. Carbon dioxide, a harmless gas, is responsible for the bubbles in beer, soda pop, mineral water, and the like. Cochineal extract is a coloring obtained from the cochineal insect, which lives on cactus plants in Peru, the Canary Islands, and elsewhere.
Carmine is a more purified coloring made from cochineal, but in both cases, carminic acid actually provides the color. These colorings, which are extremely stable, are used in some red, pink or purple candy, yogurt, ice cream, beverages, and other foods, as well as in drugs and cosmetics. They appear to be safe, except that a small percentage of consumers suffer allergic reactions ranging from hives to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Carmine and cochineal have long been listed on labels simply as "artificial coloring" or "color added.
Food and Drug Administration gave the food industry until January 1, , to clearly identify the colorings as carmine or cochineal extract on food labels to help consumers identity the cause of their allergic reaction and avoid the colorings in the future. Unfortunately, sensitive individuals must endure any number of allergic reactions before identifying the cause. The FDA rejected CSPI's request for labels to disclose that carmine is extracted from insects so vegetarians and others who want to avoid animal products could do so.
Thickening, gelling, and stabilizing agent: Dairy and non-dairy products, including ice cream, sorbet, frozen desserts, chocolate milk, soy milk, almond milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, whipping cream; jelly, infant formula, salad dressings, deli meat, frozen dinners. Carrageenan is a family of indigestible large molecules obtained from certain seaweeds.
It is used as a thickening or texturing agent in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Large amounts of carrageenan have harmed test animals' colons. The amounts in food are too small to be a concern for most people, but an independent committee of the World Health Organization WHO concluded that it is unclear whether people with episodes of gastrointestinal disease might absorb some carrageenan, which presumably could cause gastrointestinal or immune system problems.
Some people have reported that eliminating carrageenan from their diet diminished or eliminated their gastrointestinal discomfort. Carrageenan—at least in its natural, undegraded form—does not cause cancer in animals.
In animal studies, high doses of carrageenan increase the potency of chemicals that cause cancer, and there has been controversy over whether it could do so at the low levels that people consume.
The FDA and the WHO committee have concluded that food-grade carrageenan does not pose either a direct or an indirect cancer risk. Some experts have been concerned about the safety of carrageenan for infants, given that the GI tract of the infant is still developing. In , however, the WHO committee reviewed new animal studies and concluded that infant formula made with carrageenan is safe.
Thickening and whitening agent: Ice cream, ice milk, sherbet, coffee creamers. Casein, the principal protein in milk, is a nutritious protein containing adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids. Only about 1, pounds of the product are used annually, so it really isn't a significant part of the food supply, nor should it pose any risk.
The FDA considers it to be "generally recognized as safe. Beavers mix castoreum with urine to mark their territories and make their fur and tail more water-resistant.
The food industry finds it strong, tar-like, musky odor to be useful in flavorings. Of course, you'll never see "castoreum from anal sacs of beavers" on food labels; instead, it is just included in the broad term "natural flavorings. Prevents caking and clumping, binds water used in diet foods , improves texture, thickens, emulsifies, used as a filler: Grated cheese, breads, diet foods, frozen dinners, sauces, salad dressings.
Cellulose is a safe and inexpensive carbohydrate that comprises the woody parts and cell walls of plants. It is a type of dietary fiber found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and cereals. Acid, flavoring, chelating agent: Ice cream, sherbet, fruit drink, candy, carbonated beverages, instant potatoes. Citric acid is versatile, widely used, cheap, and safe. It is an important metabolite in virtually all living organisms and is especially abundant naturally in citrus fruits and berries.
It is used as a strong acid, a tart flavoring, and an antioxidant. Sodium citrate, also safe, is a buffer that controls the acidity of gelatin desserts, jam, ice cream, candy, and other foods. Candy, marshmallows, syrups, snack foods, imitation dairy foods. Corn syrup, which consists mostly of dextrose, is a sweet, thick liquid made by treating cornstarch with acids or enzymes.
It may be dried and used as corn syrup solids in coffee whiteners and other dry products. Corn syrup contains no nutritional value other than calories, promotes tooth decay, and is used mainly in foods with little intrinsic nutritional value.
Banned in the United States. Allowed as a packaged tabletop sweetener in Canada, and also in diet soft drinks and foods in some other countries. This controversial high-potency sweetener was used in the United States in diet foods until , at which time it was banned because animal studies suggested that it caused cancer.
It is still permitted in Canada, Europe, and some other countries. Now, based on animal studies, cyclamate or a byproduct is believed not to cause cancer directly, but to increase the potency of other carcinogens and to harm the testes.
Cysteine, an amino acid, is a natural constituent of protein-containing foods. It is added to foods to prevent oxygen from destroying vitamin C. Bakers use cysteine to reduce the mixing time for dough.
This safe emulsifier is used to build a strong gluten network to improve bread volume and keep dough from getting sticky or collapsing. Prevents sugar from crystallizing, encapsulates flavor oils, thickening agent: Dextrin is the mixture of fragments that results from treating starch with acid, alkali, or enzymes.
It is as safe as starch. Bread, caramel, soda pop, cookies, many other foods. Dextrose is an important chemical in every living organism. A sugar, it is a source of sweetness in fruits and honey. Added to foods as a sweetener, it represents empty calories and contributes to tooth decay.
Dextrose turns brown when heated and contributes to the color of bread crust and toast. Diacetyl is one of the many chemicals that give butter its characteristic flavor. Low levels are present in butter including unsalted butter, to which extra diacetyl is added to prolong its shelf life. Much higher levels have been used in butter-flavored popcorn, margarine, and butter-flavored cooking oils and sprays.
The low levels are safe, but workers in factories that produce microwave popcorn learned the hard way that long-term exposure to diacetyl causes obstructive lung disease, which is potentially fatal.
Widespread publicity around to and several lawsuits persuaded most major American food manufacturers to protect their workers and restaurant cooks by switching to supposedly safer ingredients. But more recent studies indicate that one substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, chemically similar to diacetyl also called 2,3-butanedione , may be just as damaging to the respiratory tract. This is the diglyceride part of the long-used emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides. The manufacturer claims that it can help people lose weight and reduce triglyceride levels.
Don't count on this little-used ingredient providing any real benefit. Salad dressing, margarine, sandwich spreads, mayonnaise, processed fruits and vegetables, canned shellfish, soft drinks. Modern food-manufacturing technology, which involves rollers, blenders, and containers made of metal, results in trace amounts of metal contamination in food. EDTA ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid traps metal impurities, which would otherwise promote rancidity and the breakdown of artificial colors.
Low calorie sugar-free sweetener: Drinks, hard candy, chocolate milk, frozen desserts, baked goods, packaged sweeteners sometimes mixed with stevia leaf extract, monk fruit extract, or other sweeteners. This sugar alcohol, which was first used commercially in the United States in about , is about 60 to 70 percent as sweet as sugar, but provides at most only one-twentieth as many calories.
Small amounts occur naturally in such fruits as pears, melons, and grapes, but virtually all of the erythritol used as a food additive is produced by fermenting glucose with various yeasts. Companies also value erythritol because it provides the bulk that sugar has and which high-potency sweeteners lack, plus it adds to the "mouthfeel" of low-sugar beverages.
Because it is not digested by bacteria, it does not promote tooth decay. Other than occasional allergic reactions, the only safety concern about erythritol is that eating too much of it could cause nausea. Individual sensitivities vary greatly, but most adults can safely consume up to about 50 grams of erythritol per day. For comparison, there are 12 grams in Blue Sky Zero Cola, 4 grams of erythritol in a ounce can of Zevia soda. That's safer than most other sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol, mannitol, and lactitol.
Erythritol's relative safety is due to its being mostly absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted unchanged in urine. Other sugar alcohols stir up trouble in the colon where they attract water leading to laxation or diarrhea or are digested by bacteria causing gas.
Used by the olive industry to generate a uniform jet-black color and in pills as a source of iron. Fructose also called levulose is a sugar that is a little sweeter than table sugar.
Modest amounts of fructose occur naturally in fruits and vegetables, which also contain other sugars. When table sugar is digested, it breaks down into equal amounts of fructose and glucose dextrose. Another major source of fructose in the typical diet is high-fructose corn syrup HFCS , which typically contains about half fructose and half glucose. Fructose itself is used as a sweetener in a small number of foods whose labels often imply, deceptively, that such foods are healthier than competing products that are sweetened with sugar or HFCS.
The fructose that occurs in fruits and vegetables is certainly safe. However, the large amounts that come from added fructose, sucrose ordinary table sugar , and high-fructose corn syrup increase triglyceride fat and small, dense LDL "bad" cholesterol levels in blood and may thereby increase the risk of heart disease.
Also, recent studies show that consuming 25 percent of one's calories from fructose or high-fructose corn syrup which is about half fructose leads to more visceral deep belly fat or liver fat.
Those changes may increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Finally, large amounts consumed on a regular basis also may affect levels of such hormones as leptin and ghrelin, which help regulate appetite, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans America's basic nutrition policy , American Heart Association, and other health authorities recommend that people consume no more than about 3 to 8 percent of calories in the form of refined sugars.
That's far less than the current average of 14 percent of calories. Powdered drinks, pudding, pie fillings, gelatin desserts. A solid at room temperature, inexpensive, and highly acidic, fumaric acid is the ideal source of tartness and acidity in dry food products. Thickening and gelling agent: Powdered dessert mixes, marshmallows, yogurt, ice cream, cheese spreads, beverages. Gelatin is a protein obtained from animal hides and bones.
It has little nutritional value, because it contains little or none of several essential amino acids. Companies add small amounts of Ginkgo biloba to beverages because it supposedly boosts memory and thinking, but most studies in healthy people show little or no benefit at levels greater than what's added to foods and beverages.
Since Ginkgo appears to interfere with blood clotting, it should not be consumed before or after surgery, during labor and delivery, or by those with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Importantly, in , the U. Government's National Toxicology Program published the first study that could evaluate Ginkgo 's ability to cause cancer. The study found "clear evidence" that Ginkgo biloba caused liver cancer in male and female mice and "some evidence" that Ginkgo caused thyroid cancer in rats.
Companies add small amounts to foods because of ginseng's reputation for boosting energy, sexual stamina, and mental effort, but there's little evidence for those claims even at much higher levels than what is found in foods.
The amount in foods and beverages is not likely to pose a safety risk. Sequestrant, acidifier, leavening agent, curing agent: Nonalcoholic beverages, processed fruit and fruit juices, baked goods, dairy products, cured meats.
Gluconic acid is a metabolite of glucose. Glucono delta-lactone is the most widely used of this family of compounds and is used to adjust the acidity or as a leavening agent in baked goods, processed fruits, and dairy products. It is also used in some cured meats to speed the formation of the pink color. Candy, fudge, baked goods.
In nature, glycerin forms the backbone of fat and oil molecules. The body uses it as a source of energy or as a starting material in making more-complex molecules.
The Last Conversation You’ll Ever Need to Have About Eating Right
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