Indiana /ˌɪndiˈænə/ (About this sound listen) is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by. Indiana information resource links to state homepage, symbols, flags, maps, constitutions, representitives, songs, birds, flowers, trees. Indiana sits, as its motto claims, at “the crossroads of America.” It borders Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky.
(IN) About Indiana
Rodents of various sorts are plentiful; they include woodchucks , squirrels , rats , mice , and, in the wetlands of the northeast and southwest, beavers and muskrats. Hoosiers are predominantly white, native-born Americans of native-born parents, most of whom trace their ancestry ultimately to Germany , England , Scotland , and Ireland.
Significant concentrations of ethnic minorities, however, are found in the larger metropolitan areas. They account for more than four-fifths of the population of Gary , more than one-third of the residents of East Chicago , and about one-fourth of the population of Indianapolis. People of German descent make up a significant portion of the large white population in South Bend , and, along with those of Polish, Hungarian, Belgian, and Italian ancestry, they are numerous throughout the north.
A significant and growing Hispanic population lives primarily in the cities of central and northern Indiana. In the early 21st century Asians continued to constitute a small fraction of the population, but their numbers were increasing rapidly.
More than two-thirds of the people of Indiana who are part of an organized religion are Protestant. Roman Catholics , who make up a sizable percentage of the population of southeastern and northern Indiana, are concentrated largely in the urban areas with large continental European and Irish ethnic groups, particularly South Bend. The Amish people constitute a small group located mostly in the northeast, in and around Middlebury, Nappanee , and Goshen , where Mennonites also live, but there is also a notable Amish community in Daviess county in the southwest.
Indiana was one of the first states to be surveyed using the township and range system established by Congress in From its early years, then, the state has reflected the larger cultural regions of the eastern United States.
From an occupational perspective, there are three major regions of settlement in Indiana. The first of these is the northern region of industry and truck farming. In this area, the nighttime skies of northwestern Indiana are illuminated by its steel furnaces, and during the daytime lingering clouds of industrial smoke often shadow such cities as Gary and Hammond. Southward to the Wabash valley are rich farmlands, obtained largely by draining and clearing marshes.
South Bend is an important manufacturing city and a noted educational centre in the north-central region. The northeastern part of the state is more forested and pastoral, although Elkhart and Fort Wayne are major industrial centres. The fertile plains of the central agricultural zone form the second occupational region of Indiana. Indianapolis , a city designed after Versailles , France , and Washington, D. A railway and highway hub, Indianapolis serves the surrounding farming belt as a distribution centre.
It also is a major industrial city. The third region is one of mining , quarrying, and agriculture, and it spans much of the southern portion of the state. That dominance ended, however, with the advent of industry and railroads. Southward from Bloomington is a vast limestone belt underlain by numerous caves , which makes the state a major limestone producer. Another large segment of the population lived in the urban complex consisting of Gary, Hammond , and East Chicago.
The national pattern of relocation from the central city to the suburbs has generally been evident throughout the state, with South Bend, for example, losing residents while the population of its surrounding county has grown. Nevertheless, technological advances have meant that, despite drops in total farm acreage and number of farms, production has increased. Tomatoes are the principal vegetable crop, but watermelons are important in the lower Wabash valley.
The state also is one of the leading producers of hogs and dairy products. Other important livestock includes turkeys , ducks , and sheep. Indiana is a major producer of building stone, quarried around Bedford and Bloomington in the southwest-central part of the state. To fulfill the remaining need, coal is imported from other states. Few attempts were made to conserve the gas, however, and by the supply was virtually exhausted.
Manufacturing showed steady growth from the midth to the late 20th century, during which time it emerged as a primary source of income for the state. The steel and automotive industries, operating primarily out of the northwest, are the major components of the sector.
The state also is a leading producer of pharmaceuticals , hardwood furniture , electrical products, caskets, and mobile homes. Elkhart , in the northeast, is well known for its production of musical wind instruments.
Professional and technical services were expanding rapidly. Responsibility for road construction and maintenance rests mainly with city, county, state, and federal governments. Indiana ranks high nationally in road mileage per square mile of area, and almost all its rural roads are paved. Virtually all intrastate passengers and much commercial produce travel by road.
Since the late 19th century, Indiana has figured prominently in U. Debs , five-time Socialist candidate for president. Indiana has a dense network of railroad trackage, compared with most other states. Many freight lines running east from Chicago and St. As in other states, however, the Amtrak national passenger rail system that went into operation in had sharply reduced its service by the early 21st century.
It was created artificially and opened in Commercial air service is available in major cities. There also are hundreds of smaller public and private airports scattered across the state. However, while the chief executive—the governor —has veto power over legislation, the veto can be overridden by a simple majority of the two houses.
The governor is elected for a four-year period and can serve no more than two terms in a year period. Thus, gubernatorial influence on the legislature—the General Assembly—is often weak during the second half of an administration. The General Assembly is bicameral, consisting of the Senate as its upper house and the House of Representatives as its lower house.
The assembly includes no more than 50 senators, serving four-year terms, and no more than representatives, serving for two years. They may be reelected, but there is often a high turnover. In the voters approved annual sessions for the two bodies. The state constitution requires that the legislature reapportion itself according to population every six years.
This law was ignored, however, from to , during which time the rural areas exerted an influence far out of proportion to their declining population. Under pressure from the U. Although the Supreme Court has long had just five judges, the state constitution allows for as many as nine. The justices are appointed by the governor and a judicial nominating commission after a screening procedure. A new judge serves for two years and then, if retained, for a term of 10 years.
The Court of Appeals consists of as many geographic divisions as is deemed necessary by the General Assembly; in the early 21st century that number was five. Each division has three appellate judges.
There are also circuit, superior, municipal, and county courts. The four principal levels of local government are the county, township, city or town, and school district.
Townships can serve a dual capacity as school and civil townships, but overall their importance has been greatly reduced; welfare is now the primary function of townships. Boards of county commissioners have executive and legislative powers, while county councils are concerned almost exclusively with fiscal affairs.
City voters elect a mayor and common council. Indiana is a two-party state, the Republicans having held a slight advantage since the last quarter of the 19th century, especially in the General Assembly and in presidential voting.
At the national level the state can claim one president, Benjamin Harrison , the grandson of William Henry Harrison , and five vice presidents. In the Indiana native son Wendell L. Willkie was the Republican candidate for president. In presidential elections the state has tilted heavily toward the Republican Party.
December 11, 19th State. Indiana's Constitution , 19th State. Cardinal List of State Birds. Indiana Fun Facts and Trivia. The flags dimensions shall be three feet fly by two feet hoist; or five feet fly by three feet hoist; or any size proportionate to either of those dimensions. The field of the flag shall be blue with nineteen stars and a flaming torch in gold or buff.
Thirteen stars shall be arranged in an outer circle, representing the original thirteen states; five stars shall be arranged in a half circle below the torch and inside the outer circle of stars, representing the states admitted prior to Indiana; and the nineteenth star, appreciably larger than the others and representing Indiana shall be placed above the flame of the torch.
The outer circle of stars shall be so arranged that one star shall appear directly in the middle at the top of the circle, and the word "Indiana" shall be placed in a half circle over and above the star representing Indiana and midway between it and the star in the center above it. Rays shall be shown radiating from the torch to the three stars on each side of the star in the upper center of the circle.
Peony Paeonia Other State Flowers. Paul Dresser Music by: Indiana Quarter List of State Quarters. Indiana County Map , 92 Counties.
Learn about Indiana's population, terrain, weather, time zones, maps, fun facts, state emblems and famous Hoosiers. Information on Indiana — economy, government, culture, state map and flag, major cities, points of interest, famous residents, state motto, symbols, nicknames, . 'Round my Indiana homesteads wave the cornfields, In the distance loom the woodlands clear and cool. Oftentimes my thoughts revert to scenes of childhood.