Hemp, or industrial hemp typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of. Hemp originated in Central Asia. Hemp cultivation for fibre was recorded in China as early as bce and was practiced in the Mediterranean countries of . Hemp is an incredibly versatile plant that has played an important role in the history of mankind. With the capability to be used to produce.
of Hemp Origin
Probably the most widespread plant having psychedelic properties and used in cults is Indian hemp, Cannabis sativa , which grows all over the world except in very cold climates. It is used in religious practices in India and Africa and….
Hemp originated in Central Asia. Hemp cultivation for fibre was recorded in China as early as bce and was practiced in the Mediterranean countries of Europe early in the Christian era, spreading throughout the rest of Europe during the Middle Ages.
It was planted in Chile in the s and a century later in North America. Hemp is grown in temperate zones as an annual cultivated from seed and can reach a height of up to 5 metres 16 feet.
Crops grow best in sandy loam with good drainage and require average monthly rainfall of at least 65 mm 2. Crops cultivated for fibre are densely sowed and produce plants averaging 2—3 metres 6—10 feet tall with almost no branching.
Plants grown for oilseed are planted farther apart and are shorter and many-branched. The slender stalks are hollow except at the tip and base. The leaves are compound with palmate shape, and the flowers are small and greenish yellow. Seed-producing flowers form elongate, spikelike clusters growing on the pistillate, or female, plants.
Pollen-producing flowers form many-branched clusters on staminate, or male, plants. Maximum yield and quality are obtained by harvesting soon after the plants reach maturity, indicated by the full blossoms and freely shedding pollen of the male plants. Although sometimes pulled up by hand, plants are more often cut off about 2. Fibres are obtained by subjecting the stalks to a series of operations—including retting , drying, and crushing—and a shaking process that completes separation from the woody portion, releasing the long, fairly straight fibre, or line.
The fibre strands, usually over 1. The fibre, longer and less flexible than flax , is usually yellowish, greenish, or a dark brown or gray and, because it is not easily bleached to sufficiently light shades, is rarely dyed.
It is strong and durable and is used for cordage—e. In Italy some hemp receives special processing, producing whitish colour and attractive lustre, and is used to make fabric similar to linen. The edible seeds contain about 30 percent oil and are a source of protein , fibre , and magnesium. Shelled hemp seeds, sometimes called hemp hearts, are sold as a health food and may be eaten raw; they are commonly sprinkled on salads or blended with fruit smoothies.
The perianth persists on the surface of the single seed achene. The fibres overlap in bundles containing from cells per bundle. Fibre bundles often run the entire length of plants. Approximately 25 bundles lie around stems, embedded in a ring of phloem parenchyma.
The morphological descriptions of the 'biotypes' presented below are adapted from work by Schultes et al. Cultivated for fibre, oil, and sometimes for drugs. Cultivated primarily for drugs but also used for fibre and oil.
Plants small usually under 0. Plants short under 1. Cultivated for drugs, primarily hashish. The exact origin of hemp and its cultivation are not very clear; however, both historians and archaeologists agree that hemp was one of the first non-food crops to be cultivated.
It is thought that the plant probably originates from temperate central Asia. Authors from India favour an origin in the Himalayas, and Chinese authors propose sites along the Yangtze or Yellow rivers.
There is strong archaeological evidence of the widespread use of hemp in China as an economic crop by around BC. The vast majority of hemp fibre remains have been recovered from archaeological sites in China.
The oldest written record of the use of hemp is a Chinese herbal from the third millennium BC, in which the medicinal use of hemp was described. In a tomb in the Shaanxi Province of China in , archaeologists discovered a piece of paper containing hemp fibre, dated to —87 BC. This is considered to be the oldest piece of paper ever recovered. According to Vavilov, domestication of hemp probably occurred independently in several centres in northeast Asia around six millennia ago.
In Egypt, the presence of hashish was found in the body tissues of mummies, dating back to about BC. The Greeks and Romans used hemp for the production of rope and coarse fabric.
They probably did not use it as a drug. During the s, servants from India carried seeds to Jamaica, and from here drug cultivation spread within the Gulf of Mexico. There is considerable evidence for the diffusion of hemp in Europe and the Middle East.
From the 16th to the 18th centuries, hemp was an important fibre crop in Europe and North America. Hemp production declined in the 19th and 20th centuries due to the large-scale cultivation of cotton, the advent of synthetic fibres and because the growing of hemp has been made illegal in many countries. Today the distribution of hempcultivation is poorly documented.
Nova Institute Karus et al. A list of major centres of cultivation for a minor crop such as hemp, is liable to change and become out of date. The drug cannabis, for instance, is grown almost globally the ODCCP cites countries , but few countries are consistent and have significant exportation.
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Early vegetative growth is often slow, but later growth may be quite rapid. Generally, canopy closure when leaves of adjacent plants mesh together and shade the soil occurs when fibre crops are approximately 50 cm in height. Duke determined that optimal growth of C. It has a growth period of months, which is dependent on the latitude. Duke found that C. It flowers in the autumn, when the photoperiod drops below hours per day, depending on the variety and location.
The plant is a nitrophile and requires much nutrients. Fibre crops require high levels of nitrogen and potassium, and in descending order of importance calcium, phosphorous and magnesium. However, seed crops extract less potassium and more phosphorous from the soil, and drug crops have a high demand for phosphorus Frank and Rosenthal, Duke suggests that a soil pH of 6.
Fibre The long, strong, mildew-resistant fibre in hemp was traditionally used for rope, sails, tarpaulin, canvas bags, and carpets. Fine yarn can be spun for clothing, handbags, and other textiles. The low lignin level present in hemp fibre and hurds make these materials ideal for production of paper, fibreboard, composite wood products; or may be mixed with lime to create reinforced concrete.
The fibres also serve as a fibreglass substitute, for pressed insulation and moulded panels for the car industry. Hempseed The seed is technically an achene, a small, dry nut. For example field-grown crops yield an average of g seeds per plant, or about 22, seeds per plant McPartland et al. Approximately one-third of hempseed is oil, which is used in lighting, lubrication, soaps, detergents and cosmetic creams.
The fatty acids are quick drying and so hemp oil is useful for paints, varnishes and printing inks. Hemp oil can also be burned as a fuel. In China, hempseed is commonly eaten, roasted or raw. Interdisciplinary in scope, Economic Botany bridges the gap between pure and applied botany by focusing on the uses of plants by people. The foremost publication of its kind in this field, Economic Botany documents the rich relationship that has always exixted between plants and people around the world, encompassing the past, present, and potential uses of plants.
The issues contain original research articles, review articles, book reviews, annotated bibliotheca, notes on economic plants, and instructions to contributors. Established in by Dr.
Fulling, this journal has been the official publication of the Society for Economic Botany since Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Journals that are combined with another title.
The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp
Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and. Hemp's Humble Origins. “It would be wryly interesting if in human history the cultivation of marijuana led generally to the invention of agriculture, and thereby to. Is Origins' debut cannabis beauty product a marvelous marijuana-infused mask or just more hemp hype? Hello, (keep) Calm and carry on.