Dystonia is a movement disorder in which a person's muscles contract uncontrollably. The contraction causes the affected body part to twist. Dystonia is a range of movement disorders that involve involuntary movements and extended muscle contractions. There may be twisting body. You can strain or pull your intercostal muscles in many different ways. These muscles are usually hurt during some twisting motion. Pain can.
Not getting enough rest during intense training can cause a strain. In severe strains, the muscle, tendon, or both are partially or completely ruptured, resulting in serious injury.
Some muscle function will be lost with a moderate strain, in which the muscle, tendon, or both are overstretched and slightly torn. With a mild strain, the muscle or tendon is stretched or pulled, slightly. This happens when the muscles that support the spine are twisted, pulled, or torn. Athletes who engage in excessive jumping or twisting—during basketball or volleyball, for example—are at risk for this injury.
This is when a major muscle in the back of the thigh tears or stretches. The likely cause is muscle strength imbalance between the hamstrings and the quadriceps, the muscles in the front of the thigh. Kicking a football, running, or leaping to make a basket can pull a hamstring.
Hamstring injuries tend to happen again. Bone breaks, unlike sprains and strains, should always be looked at by a healthcare provider to make sure of proper healing. Call your healthcare provider if the pain does not lessen or if the bone appears to be deformed.
Seek urgent medical care if you have numbness, weakness, or poor circulation in the injured limb. All sports and exercises, even walking, carry a risk of sprains. The areas of the body most at risk for a sprain depend on the specific activities involved. For example, basketball, volleyball, soccer, and other jumping sports share a risk for foot, leg, and ankle sprains.
Soccer, football, hockey, boxing, wrestling, and other contact sports put athletes at risk for strains. So do sports that feature quick starts, like hurdling, long jump, and running races. Gymnastics, tennis, rowing, golf, and other sports that need extensive gripping put participants at higher risk for hand strains.
Elbow strains often happen in racquet, throwing, and contact sports. A severe sprain or strain may need surgery or immobilization, followed by physical therapy. Mild sprains and strains may need rehab exercises and a change in activity during recovery.
In all but mild cases, your healthcare provider should evaluate the injury and establish a treatment and rehab plan. Meanwhile, rest, ice, compression, and elevation called RICE usually will help minimize damage caused by sprains and strains.
Abnormal muscle contractions are diagnosed through a careful medical history, as well as a physical and neurological examination. In some cases when a structural abnormality is suspected, x rays may be performed. The medical history helps the physician evaluate the presence of other conditions or disorders that might contribute to or cause the abnormal contractions. Records of previous diagnoses, surgeries, and treatments are reviewed.
The child's family medical history is evaluated to determine if there is a history of muscular or neurological disorders. The physical and neurological exams may include an evaluation of the child's motor reflexes including muscle tone, mobility, strength, balance, and endurance; heart and lung function; cranial nerve function; and an examination of the child's abdomen, spine, throat, and ears.
The child's height and weight and blood pressure also are checked and recorded. When a neurological cause is suspected, a multi-disciplinary team may be consulted to provide an accurate diagnosis, so the proper treatment can be planned. Occupational and physical therapy evaluations may be helpful to determine upper and lower extremity movement patterns and passive range of motion.
In some cases, nerve conduction studies with electromyography of the affected muscles may be performed to evaluate an underlying neuromuscular disorder. These tests are useful in evaluating a child's muscular activity and provide a comprehensive assessment of nerve and muscle function.
In both tests, the examiner uses a computer, monitor, amplifier, loudspeaker, stimulator, and high-tech filters to see and hear how the muscles and nerves are responding during the test. In the nerve conduction study, small electrodes are placed on the skin over the muscles to be examined. A stimulator delivers a very small electrical current that does not cause damage to the body through the electrodes, causing the nerves to fire. In the electromyogram, a very thin, sterilized needle is inserted into various muscles, usually those affected most by spasticity symptoms.
The needle is attached by wires to a recording machine. The patient is asked to relax and contract the muscles being examined. The electrical signals produced by the nerves and muscles during these tests are measured and recorded by a computer and displayed as electrical waves on the monitor. The test results are interpreted by a specially trained physician. Most cases of simple cramps require no treatment other than patience and stretching.
When heat cramps occur, the child should stop the activity, move to a cool or shady place, remove excess clothing, drink cool water or a sports drink with electrolytes, such as Gatorade, and rest. If the child appears nauseous or is feeling dizzy, he should lie down, with feet slightly elevated. Directing a fan on the child will help cool the child.
Gently and gradually stretching and massaging the affected muscle may ease the pain and hasten recovery. Briefly applying cold packs to cramped muscles, for about ten minutes, may help ease pain. Acetaminophen such as Tylenol or ibuprofen such as Advil or Motrin should be used sparingly for relief of discomfort. Ask the child's doctor for specific guidelines. More prolonged or regular cramps may be treated with prescribed medications.
If the child has any signs of dehydration, generous amounts of fluids and an oral rehydrating solution containing glucose and electrolytes should be given. Oral rehydrating solutions, including brands such as Pedialyte, Infalyte, Ceralyte, and Oralyte, are available at most grocery stores and drug stores.
They are essential for replacing fluids, minerals , and salts. Dehydration can upset the body's electrolyte balance, leading to potentially life-threatening problems such as heart beat abnormalities arrhythmia.
Prolonged, severe dehydration requires medical treatment with intravenous IV fluids and may require hospitalization. Treatment of underlying metabolic or neurologic diseases, when possible, may help relieve symptoms. Active motion —Spontaneous; produced by active efforts. Active range of motion exercises are those that are performed by the patient without assistance. Acupuncture —Based on the same traditional Chinese medical foundation as acupressure, acupuncture uses sterile needles inserted at specific points to treat certain conditions or relieve pain.
Ataxia —A condition marked by impaired muscular coordination, most frequently resulting from disorders in the brain or spinal cord. Biofeedback —A training technique that enables an individual to gain some element of control over involuntary or automatic body functions. Central nervous system —Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain, cranial nerves, and spinal cord. The brain is the center of higher processes, such as thought and emotion and is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses.
The cranial nerves and spinal cord link the brain to the peripheral nervous system, that is the nerves present in the rest of body.
Cerebral palsy —A nonprogressive movement disability caused by abnormal development of or damage to motor control centers of the brain. Clonic —Referring to clonus, a series of muscle contractions and partial relaxations that alternate in some nervous diseases in the form of convulsive spasms.
Contraction —A tightening of the uterus during pregnancy. Contractions may or may not be painful and may or may not indicate labor. Contracture —A tightening or shortening of muscles that prevents normal movement of the associated limb or other body part. Dystonia —Painful involuntary muscle cramps or spasms.
Fasciculations —Small involuntary muscle contractions visible under the skin. Hyperactive reflexes —Reflexes that persist too long and may be too strong. For example, a hyperactive grasp reflex may cause the hand to stay clenched in a tight fist. Hypermobility —Unusual flexibility of the joints, allowing them to be bent or moved beyond their normal range of motion.
Hypertonia —Having excessive muscular tone or strength. Idiopathic —Refers to a disease or condition of unknown origin. Motor neuron —A nerve cell that specifically controls and stimulates voluntary muscles. Multiple sclerosis —A progressive, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by damage to the myelin sheath that covers nerves. The disease, which causes progressive paralysis, is marked by periods of exacerbation and remission.
Muscle spasm —Localized muscle contraction that occurs when the brain signals the muscle to contract. Myoclonus —Involuntary contractions of a muscle or an interrelated group of muscles.
Also known as myoclonic seizures. Neurologist —A doctor who specializes in disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Neurosurgeon —Physician who performs surgery on the nervous system.
Nocturnal leg cramps —Cramps that may be related to exertion and awaken a person during sleep. Occupational therapist —A healthcare provider who specializes in adapting the physical environment to meet a patient's needs. An occupational therapist also assists patients and caregivers with activities of daily living and provide instructions on wheelchair use or other adaptive equipment.
Orthopedist —A doctor specializing in treatment of the musculoskeletal system. Passive movement —Movement that occurs under the power of an outside source such as a clinician. There is no voluntary muscular contraction by the individual who is being passively moved. Periodic limb movement disorder —A disorder characterized by involuntary flexion of leg muscles, causing twitching and leg extension or kicking during sleep. Peripheral nerves —Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord that provide the link between the body and the central nervous system.
Physiatrist —A physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Physical therapist —A healthcare provider who teaches patients how to perform therapeutic exercises to maintain maximum mobility and range of motion.
Range of motion ROM —The range of motion of a joint from full extension to full flexion bending measured in degrees like a circle. Restless legs syndrome RLS —A disorder in which the patient experiences crawling, aching, or other disagreeable sensations in the calves that can be relieved by movement.
RLS is a frequent cause of difficulty falling asleep at night. Causas de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease. Dexterity and Parkinson's Disease. Diet and Parkinson's Disease. Driving with Parkinson's Disease. Exercise and Parkinson's Disease. Fatigue and Parkinson's Disease. Finding the Right Doctor or Motor Specialist.
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Dystonia and Parkinson's Disease
A dystonia is a lasting muscle spasm that often causes repeated twisting movements or unusual body positions. The severity of the muscle. Tendons are the tough, fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone. With a back strain, the muscles and tendons that support the spine are twisted. Strains are a twist, pull and/or tear of a muscle and/or tendon. Tendons are cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Breaks are a fracture, chip.