However, the stability of cannabinoids in the hair shaft has not been to THC), but its concentration continuously declined to 4% (relative to THC) after h. Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and. PDF | Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on.
Cannabinoids in Hair 3.5.
Proof of cannabis administration by sensitive detection of nor-Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolcarboxylic acid in hair using selective methylation and application of liquid chromatography- tandem and multistage mass spectrometry. However, its application to hair matrix is characterized by a lack of specificity which is due to the unspecific decarboxylation as most abundant fragmentation reaction.
The selective methylation of the 9-carboxyl-group proved to be the most efficient derivatization procedure. Children living in homes with drug-addicted parents are in a steady danger of poisoning and may suffer from neglect, maltreatment, and lagging behind in development. Hair analysis could be a suitable way to examine this endangering exposure to drugs.
From the children's hair, only in 35 samples, no drugs were detected. Cannabinoids were found in 56 samples, in 20 of them as the only drug. In the remaining 95 samples, methadone was identified 35 times with additional use of illegal drugs in 28 cases. Drug use in the children's environment was obvious for heroin in 44 cases, cocaine in 73 cases, amphetamine or ecstasy in 6 cases, and diazepam in 8 cases. The concentrations varied from limit of quantification to 2.
In general, hair from younger children contained higher concentrations than from their elder siblings. Within the families, hair samples of children and parents provided often the same drug pattern. External deposition from smoke and by contact with contaminated surfaces or parent's hands and systemic deposition after passive smoking, administration, or oral intake by hand-to-mouth transfer were discussed as alternative incorporation mechanisms into hair.
Altogether, investigation of children's hair proved to be a useful way to detect endangering drug use in their environment and lead to a more thorough inspection and measures to improve their situation in many of the cases.
Analytical approaches for the determination of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids in human matrices. Over the last two decades, the role played by phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids in medicine has gained increasing interest in the scientific community. In this review, we discuss the analytical methods that are currently used for the identification of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids, and we summarize the benefits and limitations of these procedures.
Moreover, we provide an overview of the main biological matrices that have been analyzed to date for qualitative detection and quantitative determination of these compounds.
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. For this purpose many analytical methodologies using mass spectrometric detection have been developed.
Are they useful in discriminating occasional from heavy smokers? Feb Drug Test Anal. Some forensic and clinical circumstances require knowledge of the frequency of drug use. Care of the patient, administrative, and legal consequences will be different if the subject is a regular or an occasional cannabis smoker.
However, to date this indicator has not been adequately assessed under experimental conditions. We carried out a controlled administration study of smoked cannabis with a placebo. Cannabinoid levels were determined in whole blood using tandem mass spectrometry.
Significantly high differences in THCCOOH concentrations were found between the two groups when measured during the screening visit, prior to the smoking session, and throughout the day of the experiment. Receiver operating characteristic ROC curves were determined and two threshold criteria were proposed in order to distinguish between these groups: These thresholds were tested and found to be consistent with previously published experimental data.
A further medical assessment and follow-up would be necessary for the reissuing of a driving license once abstinence from cannabis has been demonstrated. A feasibility study was performed to examine the effectiveness of hair testing in determining the prevalence of drug use in a young adult population. The study included randomly selected young adults in Norway. It was designed to make the collection, preparation and analysis of the samples as little resource demaning as possible.
Full anonymity was provided for the participants. The preliminary findings suggest that the study protocol used to collect and analyze the samples was unable to produce results that could be generalized to the young adult population in Norway.
Analysis of hair samples may underestimate the use of cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine and methamphetamine. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays ELISAs have had many thousands of applications over the past 25 yr The technique has been used in all fields of pure and applied aspects of biology, in particular it forms the backbone of diagnostic tech- niques The systems used to perform ELISAs make use of antibodies These are pro- teins produced in animals in response to antigenic stimuli Antibodies are specific chemicals that bind to the antigens used for their production thus they can be used to detect the particular antigens if binding can be demonstrated Conversely, specific antibodies can be measured by the use of defined antigens, and this forms the basis of many assays in diagnostic biology.
The objective was to evaluate the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure PME and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.
Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child's neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared with child hair results.
A total of children were evaluated. Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME.
No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared with PME children without postnatal exposure.
Child hair testing offered a noninvasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6. Aug Drug Test Anal. At present, testing for THC metabolites is not standard practice due to its analytical complexity. After manual hair washing and grinding, sample preparation was fully automated, by means of a robotic autosampler.
The hair extraction took place by digestion with sodium hydroxide. Derivatisation of all analytes was by silylation. The validated method has been successfully applied to our routine forensic case work and a summary of data from authentic hair samples is given, as well as data from proficiency tests.
Immunochemical determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in cattle hair: A strategy to ensure food safety. Enrofloxacin ERFX is a synthetic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone FQ family, which is commonly administered in veterinary medicine. Therefore, hair analysis is an attractive non-invasive alternative to control misuse of such antibiotic and to ensure food safety by preventing such food derived products arrive to the consumer.
The results demonstrate the potential of the immunochemical procedure reported here to rapidly screen and quantitate FQ residues in hair samples. A comparative study of screening instruments and biomarkers for the detection of cannabis use. Jul Subst Abuse. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of three different screening instruments questionnaires for the detection of cannabis use CU with biological markers in blood and hair. Ninety-four students were recruited in October Blood and hair samples were taken and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
These values were similar to those compared to a 0. Moderate agreement was found between all questionnaires and biomarkers of CU. SDS was less sensitive, but more specific. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption. In the light of the serious consequences of positive test results the mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair urgently need scientific evaluation.
This is of concern for e. Die vorliegende Arbeit kann in drei Themenbereiche unterteilt werden. Der zweite Teil der Dissertation befasst sich mit synthetischen Cannabinoiden.
Des Weiteren konnte basierend auf der Untersuchung des Metabolismus von AM erstmalig anhand von Humanproben aufzeigt werden, dass es im Rahmen der Verstoffwechselung von synthetischen Cannabinoiden mit terminal fluorierter Pentylseitenkette zu einem metabolischen Austausch des Fluoratoms gegen eine Hydroxylgruppe kommt. Die identifizierten Hauptmetabolisierungsschritte entsprechen denen der bekannten Benzodiazepine und bestehen vorwiegend in Hydroxylierungsreaktionen.
Die extrem hohe pharmakologische Potenz von Stoffen wie z. Cannabis and Drug-Facilitated Crimes. Cannabis is by far the most widely used drug of abuse in the world. Thus, it is not surprising to find THC or its metabolites in biological samples taken from victims of drug-facilitated crimes.
Cannabis can be administered surreptitiously in pastries but those cases are rare. Like alcohol, most of the time cannabis is used by the offender and shared with the "agreement" of the victim resulting in what is called incapacitated rape or crime.
Some of the psychoactive effects of THC such as euphoria, drowsiness, visual disorders and short memory troubles are expected by the perpetrator to facilitate the crime. This chapter emphasizes the role of cannabis in drug-facilitated or incapacitated crime situations with details on the products that can be used, the metabolism, the effects of cannabis and the interpretation of toxicological analysis. In this study, the previously developed method was verified using recently obtained hair from a cannabis user.
The discrimination between conjugated and unconjugated compounds in hair is important to understand the mechanism of drug uptakes into hair.
More data obtained with our simple and highly sensitive method from the hair of cannabis users would help to understand the relationship of concentrations between THC-COOH and its conjugate in hair. The increasing prevalence of medicinal cannabis products highlights the importance of reliable bioanalysis and re-evaluation of the interpretation of positive test results for THC, as legal implications may arise in workplace, roadside and sports drug testing situations.
This article summarizes published research on the bioanalysis of THC and cannabidiol, with particular focus on Sativex. Common screening and confirmatory testing of blood, urine, oral fluid and hair samples are outlined. Correlations between matrices and current analytical pitfalls are also addressed. Contactless decontamination of hair samples: Apr Drug Test Anal.
Room temperature ionic liquids ILs have already been shown to provide efficient extraction media for several systems, and to capture volatile compounds, namely opiates. To prepare in vitro cannabinoids-contaminated hair, samples were flushed with hashish smoke for 7 h. The Design of Experiments results demonstrated that all studied variables were significant for the process and the obtained optimum conditions were: In the work of Perrotin-Brunel et al.
Additionally, our method was compared with the method proposed by Cairns et al. Effect of linker length between variable domains of single chain variable fragment antibody against daidzin on its reactivity.
The peptide linker between variable domains of heavy VH and light VL chains is one of important factors that influence the characteristics of scFv, including binding activity and specificity against target antigen. They were expressed in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae using the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BmNPV bacmid DNA system, and their reactivity against daidzin and related compounds were evaluated using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay icELISA , which is applicable for quantitative analysis of daidzin.
The results showed that the reactivity of scFvs against daidzin was increased, whereas specificity slightly decreased when their peptide linker was lengthened. These results suggested that the linker length of DZ-scFvs contributes to its reactivity.
In addition, the results emphasize that the linker length could control the reactivity of DZ-scFvs. A comprehensively automated liquid—liquid extraction LLE method has been developed.
The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules capable of shaking, centrifugation and solvent evaporation. It comprises digestion of hair in sodium hydroxide solution, LLE, extract evaporation, reconstitution in silylation reagent, inlet derivatization and GC—MS analysis.
Method validation guidelines of the Society for Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry were fulfilled. The limit of quantification LOQ was 0. Four-round robin tests were passed successfully and several post- and ante-mortem samples were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication on a comprehensively automated classical LLE workflow in the field of hair analysis.
However, despite cannabis being the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, a MALDI-MS method for the detection and mapping of cannabinoids in a single hair has not been reported. This is probably due to the poor ionization efficiency of the drug and its metabolites and low concentration incorporated into hair. This research showed that the in situ derivatization of cannabinoids through addition of an N-methylpyridium group resulted in improved ionization efficiency, permitting both detection and mapping of?
Additionally, for the first time an in-source re-arrangement of THC was observed and characterised in this paper thus contributing to new and accurate knowledge in the analysis of this drug by MALDI mass spectrometry. Compliance-monitoring of amphetamine in hair. A differentiation between the use of the medically prescribed drug and the abuse of illicit street amphetamine is of great importance e.
The method was successfully validated. The analysis of the 16 amphetamine users' samples showed only racemic amphetamine. Furthermore, it could be shown in a controlled study that S -AMP can be detected after administration of even very low doses of lisdexamfetamine and dexamphetamine which can be of interest in forensic toxicology and especially in drug-facilitated crimes DFC.
The method now enables the retrospective compliance-monitoring of ADHD patients and the differentiation between medically prescribed intake of S -amphetamine and abuse of illicit street amphetamine. Pre-analytical, analytical and interpretive aspects. Background and aims Hair analysis for drug detection is one of the widely accepted imperative techniques in the field of forensic toxicology. The current study was designed to investigate the efficacy of chromatography for detection of drugs of abuse in hair.
Method A comprehensive review of articles from last two decades on hair analyses via PubMed and similar resources was performed. Issues concerning collection, decontamination and analytical techniques are summarised. Physiochemical nature of hair, mechanism of drug incorporation and its stability in hair are briefly discussed. Furthermore, various factors affecting results and interpretation are elucidated.
Result A hair sample is chosen over traditional biological samples such blood, urine, saliva or tissues due to its inimitable ability to provide a longer time frame for drug detection. Recent advances in analytical technology have resulted in better sensitivity, reproducibility and accuracy, thus providing a new arena of scientific understanding and test interpretation. Conclusion Though recent studies have yielded many insights into drug binding and drug incorporation in hair, the major challenge in hair analysis lies in the interpretation of results, which may be affected by external contamination and thus lead to false-positives.
Therefore, there is a need for more sensitive and selective analysis methods to be developed in order to minimise factors that induce the effect of melanin, age and so on, and this would certainly provide a new dimension to hair analysis and its applications. In vivo incorporation of fenfluramine and norfenfluramine into pigmented and nonpigmented hair of rats measured by HPLC-fluorescence detection.
Jan Forensic Toxicol. The incorporation profiles for fenfluramine Fen and its metabolite norfenfluramine Norf into black hair and white hair of Zucker rats and into white hair of Wistar rats after intraperitoneal i. The target compounds were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using 4- 4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazolyl benzoyl chloride as a derivatization reagent. It was surprising that Fen and Norf levels in root samples of white hair were much higher than those in shaft or root samples of black hair, strongly suggesting that unknown mechanisms other than the action of melanin take place in the white hair root.
Time course profiles for Fen and Norf after administration of a single i. Even with Wistar rats having only white hair, we could demonstrate the time courses for incorporation of Fen and Norf into white hair. Finally, time course profiles for Fen and Norf were also followed after a single i. Testing human hair for cannabis. Samples mg approximately were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 degrees C in the presence of ng of deuterated standards.
Forty-three hair samples were obtained from fatal heroin overdose cases. Hair concentrations ranged from 0. As is generally the case for other drugs detected in hair, metabolite concentration was always lower when compared to the parent drug concentration.
In public hair, THC concentrations ranged from 0. In most cases, the highest cannabinoid concentration was found in pubic hair, suggesting that this sample may be the more suitable for cannabis testing. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse: Cannabis is one of the oldest and most commonly abused drugs in the world.
Recently, tremendous advances have been made in our understanding of the endogenous cannabinoid system with the identification of cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid receptor antagonists, endogenous neurotransmitters, metabolic enzymes, and reuptake mechanisms.
These advances have helped us to elucidate the mechanisms of action of cannabis and the side effects and toxicities associated with its use. In addition, potential therapeutic applications are being investigated for the use of smoked cannabis and synthetic THC dronabinol. Most workplace, military, and criminal justice positive urine drug tests are due to the use of cannabis. In addition, alternative matrices, including saliva, sweat, and hair, are being utilized for monitoring cannabis use in treatment, employment, and criminal justice settings.
Experimental laboratory studies have identified cognitive, physiological, and psychomotor effects following cannabis. Epidemiological studies reveal that cannabis is the most common illicit drug world-wide in impaired drivers, and in motor vehicle injuries and fatalities. Driving simulator studies also indicate performance impairment following cannabis use; however, the results of open- and closed-road driving studies and of culpability studies do not consistently document increased driving risk.
Clearly a combination of ethanol and cannabis use significantly increases risks. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabis and places special emphasis on the effects of cannabis on complex tasks such as driving and flying. Hair Analysis for Drugs of Abuse. Hair can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and is not subject to evasive maneuvers false negatives such as temporary abstention, excessive fluid intake, and substitution or adulteration of specimens.
Hair analysis has a wide window of detection ranging from months to years and provides information concerning the severity and pattern of an individual's drug use. Hair analysis is also not subject to evidential false positives, such as those caused by poppy seed ingestion, spiking of drinks or food, and mix-up or contamination of specimens. In part, these problems can be avoided because hair analysis can always be repeated wit a newly collected specimen. The results of animal experiments and of various clinical, forensic, and criminal justice application are described.
Recommendations for hair testing in forensic cases. Driving simulator studies also indicate performance impairment following cannabis use; however, the results of open-and closed-road driving studies and of culpability studies do not consistently document increased driving risk. Ketoprofen was added to hair samples as internal standard for the other compounds. Responses were linear ranging from 0.
The intra-assay precisions ranged from. Analysis of a large sample of hair specimens. It has been hypothesized that hair color may play a role in the concentration of various drugs of abuse in hair. Several studies have shown that melanin in hair appears to play a binding role for at least some commonly abused drugs. However, these studies have been limited by a number of factors when assessing the clinical significance of a hypothesized melanin or color effect.
The analysis is based on 3, positive c-THC hair specimens drawn from a universe of approximately 80, specimens of scalp hair harvested from the posterior vertex of the head.
Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. The calibration curve for morphine in hair showed linear over 0. Though the limit of detection was 0. The reproducibility of recovery of morphine spiked to the control hair was 2. The levels of total morphine in monkey hair intoxicated with morphine and heroin were 3. Taking their doses into account, it is concluded that the morphine level in hair from monkeys administered with heroin was 6 times higher than that with morphine.
In hair from monkeys and humans intoxicated with heroin, 6-acetylmorphine was detected at the level of 0. Drug concentrations of sectional hair shaft cut 2 cm each from the root side were compared with the self-reported drug histories of three cases.
The results of sectional analysis of heroin abuser's hair suggested that the relationship between the distribution of morphine along hair shaft and the drug use history showed a good correlation, though the accumulation of heroin metabolites in body could result from chronic use of heroin. Hair, Urine, and Self-report. This article reports on the comparison of self-reported cocaine use with urinalysis outcomes and radioimmunoassay of hair samples for cocaine.
The data is based on a voluntary sample of approximately arrestees, tested and interviewed anonymously. The study reports high rates of request compliance for both urine and hair samples, and affirms a relatively high degree of underreporting of cocaine use. Radioimmunoassay of hair appears to detect considerably larger degrees of cocaine use than are detected by urinalysis.
The differential rates of detection between hair and urine are less dramatic in subjects who appear to be high rate users. The identification of THC-COOH in hair would document cannabis use more effectively than the detection of the parent drug which might have come from environmental exposure in a smoky atmosphere.
An evaluation of patterns of racial bias in hair assays for cocaine: This article evaluates the hypothesis that hair assays for cocaine will evidence a racial bias.
It compares the outcome of hair and urinalysis assays for cocaine metabolites in a group of white and a group of black arrestees in Pinellas County, Florida on whom detailed self-reported drug use is known. The findings indicate that although blacks test at higher positive rates than whites for both hair and urine assays, these differential most likely reflect differential rates of use of cocaine which is apparent from the self-reported data.
Cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine BZE and ecgonine methylester EME , were found in hair samples from ancient Peruvian coca-leaf chewers dating back to AD The two metabolites were found in higher concentration than the parent drug. The metabolite levels appear to be below that of modern cocaine abusers. Gender does not appear to be a factor in the incorporation of drug into hair.
Hair samples taken from individuals with presumed drug abuse were tested simultaneously for delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC , cocaine, heroin, the primary heroin metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine 6-MAM and morphine.
The drugs were extracted with methanol under sonication. Compared to other extraction procedures this solvent extraction technique provides high extraction yields and less experimental effort. THC was found in In addition to 6-MAM, morphine was detected in 87 The concentrations found were in a range 0. The statistical distribution of the drug concentrations compared with the self-reported consumption behaviour of the users may possibly lead to a better understanding of the relationship between drug dosage and corresponding concentrations in hair.
Mechanisms of Drug Incorporation into Hair. Hair testing for drugs of abuse is a developing technology that offers the possibility of longer detection times than is commonly obtained with urine or blood analysis. There are many uncertainties concerning how drugs enter hair and factors that affect drug deposition and residence in hair.
Possible routes of drug entry include diffusion from blood, sweat, sebum, and skin and entry from the environment. Evidence is reviewed regarding the importance of each of these routes as possible contributors to drug deposition in hair.
Binding to specific sites in hair may involve both electrostatic forces and weaker attractions, such as van der Waals forces. Melanin and protein constituents of hair may serve as binding sites. Recent in vitro studies suggest that the color of hair or melanin content may be the major determinant of cocaine binding and, consequently, may result in color or ethnic bias in hair testing. Deuterated internal standards were added to hair samples, and samples were digested overnight in 1 N NaOH at 37 degrees C.
Digest solutions were extracted with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, which was previously developed in our laboratory for the analysis of plasma and whole blood. Derivatized extracts were analyzed on a Finnigan " mass spectrometer in negative ion chemical ionization mode using methane as the reagent gas, hydrogen as the carrier gas, and a Restek Rtx M The intra-assay precision ranged from 2.
Four laboratory wash procedures were also evaluated for their effect on the measured concentration of THC in hair. The gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay is currently being used to support pharmacokinetic studies of drug disposition into the hair of humans and animals. Race as a Factor.
Sequential blood samples were collected for up to three days, and scalp hair samples were collected at 24 and 72 h after dosing and at monthly intervals for up to 12 months. The samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for cocaine-d5 and benzoylegonine-d5 BZE-d5.
The amounts of cocaine-d5 found in the hair of these non-Caucasian subjects were compared with the amounts of cocaine-d5 found in the hair of Caucasian subjects who received the same cocaine dose under identical conditions as part of a study we reported previously.
The non-Caucasians in the present study had approximately 2. In five of the non-Caucasian subjects, cocaine-d5 could be detected in hair within 24 h after dosing. Curiously, we were unable to detect any cocaine-d5 in one of the non-Caucasian subject's hair at any time after dosing even though cocaine-d5 was in plasma at the expected levels. The results from these studies suggest there may be a racial bias in the incorporation of cocaine into human hair; however, the data are not conclusive because of the relatively small sample size.
Evidence for bias in hair testing and procedures to correct bias. A number of in vitro experiments show that different hair samples incorporate differing amounts of drugs under identical conditions. Incorporation of cocaine and morphine tends to be correlated with race, in that the hair of African American females incorporates higher concentrations of cocaine than does the hair of Caucasian males or females.
Extrapolation of these data into populations has been fraught with difficulties because the dosages of drugs and their use patterns are unknown. Cosmetic treatments and hygiene alter drug binding, which must be considered in comparing populations because cosmetic treatments are often group dependent.
Four reasons are proposed that account for the uptake and retention of drugs by hair and that may differ among groups: The data supporting bias in hair testing are reviewed and methods are proposed that use either the uptake of dyes or the incorporation of drug homologs to reduce bias. Hair specimens were washed, incubated in sodium hydroxide, subjected to solid-phase extraction, and analyzed using high-volume injection coupled with negative chemical ionization NCI mass spectrometry.
A common disadvantage of chemical ionization, the production of a single mass-to-charge ratio ion, was also addressed. By specific selection of the derivatizing agent, three ions were monitored, allowing the calculation of two ion ratios, as in electron impact mode. The method was applied to several hair specimens taken from known marijuana users and workplace specimens.
Extraction recoveries ranged from The analytical method was applied to 87 human hair samples, obtained from individuals who testified in court of having committed drug related crimes. The latter may give rise to false negatives due to the detection limit. Drug abuse's smallest victims: In utero drug exposure. The social and economic impact of drug use on our global population continues to increase leaving no geographical, social or cultural group untouched.
These figures certainly are underestimates due to the stigma of drug use during pregnancy and the accompanying legal, ethical and economic issues. Although drugs of choice and routes of administration vary by country, exposure of our most valuable resource, our children, to the developmental effects of drugs is an enormous problem.
In utero drug exposure can have a severe impact not only on the development of the fetus, but also on the child during later stages of life.
The cost of treating drug-affected infants was twice the cost of non-affected infants. Obstetrical complications including placental insufficiency, miscarriage, intrauterine death, and increased incidence of infectious and sexually-transmitted diseases are higher in the drug-abusing mother. Treatment for pregnant addicts should be a high priority for our governments. Increased awareness and improvement in our understanding of drug abuse in the medical, legal and social realms will enable us to reduce the barriers to treatment for this important population.
Assessing the potential of a "color effect" for hair analysis of norcarboxy-delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol: This study evaluates the possible effect of hair color on the concentration of norcarboxy-Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol c-THC in human hair. The analysis is based on positive c-THC hair specimens drawn from a universe of approximately specimens of scalp hair harvested from the posterior vertex of the head.
Results of hair an alyses for. Sci Int ;1 Hair as a bio logical indica tor of. Childhood co nduct disorde r trajecto-. These results are consistent with previous reports showing that hair analysis can be used as a qualitative indicator of heavy cannabis consumption, but is unable to reliably detect light cannabis consumption . Medical cannabis is becoming increasingly popular for many different ailments and improvement of general well-being.
Particularly CBD-rich extracts are easily available via online pharmacies, health stores or directly from producers. However, almost all of the extracts contain small amounts of THC. Thus, in case of continuous or heavy use of CBD rich cannabis, THC concentrations in hair may rise above accepted legal limits. The goals were to determine levels of the cannabinoids in hair and to evaluate a possible correlation between regular CBD intake and CBD levels in hair.
All participants consumed cannabis extracts from the same producer. THC was detected in one sample only at a concentration below our cut-off, whereas CBN was not detected. In this study, we showed that even after repeated consumption of CBD-rich cannabis extracts in medium to high doses, consumers are generally tested negative for THC in hair. Conversely, standardized units of use exist in other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, thus findings regarding health effects in these substances are more clear.
Complicating cannabis research even further, existing objective measures of cannabis use are limited to recent use; sub acute cannabis exposure can be measured from urine, oral fluids and blood , whereas hair analysis can be used as a qualitative indicator of neardaily cannabis use within the past 3 months .
Of note, mental health outcomes, including diagnostic criteria, are subjective and all substantial evidence regarding some of the discussed health outcomes see Table 1 are based largely upon consistent research results with self-reports.
Time to acknowledge the mixed effects of cannabis on health: A summary and critical review of the NASEM report on the health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids. Bulk analysis, in which a sample is obtained by homogenizing multiple strands of hair collected from a person, is generally used to prove habitual drug uses. However, the full mechanism underlying drug uptake into hair is yet to be elucidated.
Different localizations of drugs simultaneously administered in a strand of hair by micro-segmental analysis. Aug Drug Test Anal. Segmental hair analysis is used to estimate the time of drug intake at monthly precision in drug-related crimes. Previously we advanced this analytical method to specify the day of drug intake by cutting a strand of hair into 0. Herein, we investigated the distributions of seven compounds in a strand of hair using micro-segmental analysis. Several strands of hair were collected The administered drugs and resulting metabolites were extracted from 0.
Acidic and neutral compounds were detected at low amounts in any of the hair segments analyzed. Epinastine, fexofenadine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine, and the chlorpheniramine metabolite, desmethylchlorpheniramine each was localized to two regions within a strand of hair. By contrast, methylephedrine and its metabolite, ephedrine, each was localized to only a region.
Among 20 individual strands of hair associated with different subjects and head regions, few differences in the shapes of drug concentration-hair segment curves for each compound were detected. Our data indicated that two mechanisms for drug uptake into hair can operate depending on drug properties and that co-administered drugs can be localized to different regions in a strand of hair.
Micro-segmental analysis may aid in the identification of the day of drug intake and help to elucidate the mechanisms of drug uptake into hair. Which biological and self-report measures of cannabis use predict cannabis dependency and acute psychotic-like effects?
Background Changes in cannabis regulation globally make it increasingly important to determine what predicts an individual's risk of experiencing adverse drug effects.
Relevant studies have used diverse self-report measures of cannabis use, and few include multiple biological measures. Here we aimed to determine which biological and self-report measures of cannabis use predict cannabis dependency and acute psychotic-like symptoms.
Method In a naturalistic study, young cannabis users were assessed once when intoxicated with their own cannabis and once when drug-free in counterbalanced order. Comprehensive self-report measures were also obtained. Conclusions Levels of THC exposure are positively associated with both cannabis dependency and tolerance to the acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Combining urinary and self-report assessments use frequency; age first used enhances the measurement of cannabis use and its association with adverse outcomes.
At present, testing for THC metabolites is not standard practice due to its analytical complexity. After manual hair washing and grinding, sample preparation was fully automated, by means of a robotic autosampler. The hair extraction took place by digestion with sodium hydroxide. Derivatisation of all analytes was by silylation. The validated method has been successfully applied to our routine forensic case work and a summary of data from authentic hair samples is given, as well as data from proficiency tests.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in marijuana use prevalence and user characteristics across the recreational legalization in Washington State. Differences in change estimates between retrospective and contemporaneous pre-legalization measures are compared and considered in relation to potential social acceptability and illegality effects on reporting.
Respondents reported their current past-year use frequency and retrospective frequency of use in before the election in which legalization was passed. They also provided demographic information and details of alcohol use, including simultaneous use with marijuana. A small and not statistically significant increase of 1.
No statistically significant change was found in the prevalence of simultaneous use with alcohol, which decreased from Other findings of interest from the Washington State surveys include new users after legalization tending to be older, White, and moderate drinkers who do not use marijuana simultaneously with alcohol.
A retrospective pre-legalization measure showed only a small increase in marijuana use prevalence in contrast to larger changes found in prospectively assessed use in the NSDUH. Changes in the social acceptability and legal status of marijuana after legalization may have increased reporting of pre-legalization use compared with concurrent assessments.
May Drug Test Anal. Testing hair for cannabis use has increasingly been scrutinized due to exposure to second hand smoke or environmental contamination. Concentrations determined from specimens ranged from 0. THC was detectable in Determination of both metabolites is recommended to unequivocally differentiate consumption from external exposure or contamination. Brazil continues its battle against road traffic injury rates that are among the highest in the world. Data provided by the Department of National Transportation regarding official toxicological results performed for the purpose of this new law from March to December were made public recently.
Among all Brazilian States, 1 tests were performed for the purpose of this new law, resulting in 16 1. No data for the prevalence of specific substances tested were disclosed. Although hair analysis offers a large detection window for many substances, the positivity rate found was lower than that revealed by previous research in which oral fluid or urine samples were collected randomly from professional drivers on Brazilian roads.
For instance, the positivity rates for cannabinoids, cocaine and amphetamines taken together varied from 5. In general, hair collection is considered a non-invasive procedure by toxicologists]; however, the collection of hair samples has been performed poorly in Brazil e.
These procedures affected the physical appearance of many drivers, in addition to the fact that body hair might indicate a superior detection time window than that required by the law 90 days. Supporters of this new legislation claim in the popular media that the implementation of mandatory hair drug testing for professional drivers has been responsible for reducing all accidents involving trucks on Brazilian federal roads by as much as one-third.
However, the data presented lack peer review support, and are unreliable in a country where driving under the influence DUI information is not collected systematically and is subject to many biases. In fact, this is highly unlikely, as developed countries only reached a significant reduction in traffic accidents several years after the adoption of evidence-based traffic safety policies and awareness campaigns.
Furthermore, the necessary specificity and sensibility ratios for hair drug testing that would be expected for judiciary reasons such as the law demands are still not satisfactory, thus adding more controversy to a positive finding as an effective deterrence method.
The implementation of this new law in Brazil has been extremely costly, and has caused embarrassment for drivers during sample collection. Background Illicit drug use increases the risk of poor physical and mental health.
There are few effective drug prevention interventions. Objective To assess the acceptability of implementing and trialling two school-based peer-led drug prevention interventions.
Participants UK Year 8 students aged 12—13 years at baseline. These interventions are designed to prevent illicit drug use through training influential students to disseminate information on the risks associated with drugs and minimising harms using content from www.
Training is provided off site and follow-up visits are made in school. Stage 2 — information on the acceptability and fidelity of delivery of the interventions for refining manuals and resources. Stage 3 — a acceptability of the interventions according to prespecified criteria; b qualitative data from students, staff, parents and intervention teams on implementation and receipt of the interventions; c comparison of the interventions; and d recruitment and retention rates, completeness of primary, secondary and intermediate outcome measures and estimation of costs.
In the pilot cRCT, 12 schools were recruited, randomised and retained. The prevalence of lifetime illicit drug use was 4. All progression criteria were met. A limitation of the study was that qualitative data were collected on a self-selecting sample.
Patterns of cannabis use during adolescence and their association with harmful substance use behaviour: Findings from a UK birth cohort. Background Evidence on the role of cannabis as a gateway drug is inconsistent.
We characterise patterns of cannabis use among UK teenagers aged 13—18 years, and assess their influence on problematic substance use at age 21 years. Methods We used longitudinal latent class analysis to derive trajectories of cannabis use from self-report measures in a UK birth cohort.
We investigated 1 factors associated with latent class membership and 2 whether latent class membership predicted subsequent nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use and recent use of other illicit drugs at age 21 years. Results adolescents had three or more measures of cannabis use from age 13 to 18 years. Sex, mother's substance use, and child's tobacco use, alcohol consumption and conduct problems were strongly associated with cannabis use.
Conclusions One-fifth of the adolescents in our sample followed a pattern of occasional or regular cannabis use, and these young people were more likely to progress to harmful substance use behaviours in early adulthood. Proof of cannabis administration by sensitive detection of nor-Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolcarboxylic acid in hair using selective methylation and application of liquid chromatography- tandem and multistage mass spectrometry.
Jan Drug Test Anal. However, its application to hair matrix is characterized by a lack of specificity which is due to the unspecific decarboxylation as most abundant fragmentation reaction. The selective methylation of the 9-carboxyl-group proved to be the most efficient derivatization procedure.
Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age AimsTo investigate the prevalence of cannabis use and problem use in boys and girls at age 16 years, and to investigate the role of adversity in early life and of conduct disorder between the ages of 4 and 13 years as risk factors for these outcomes. MeasurementsCannabis use and problem cannabis use at age 16 were assessed by postal questionnaire. Material adversity, maternal substance use, maternal mental health and child conduct disorder were all assessed by maternal report.
FindingsCannabis use was more common among girls than boys Problem cannabis use was more common in boys than girls 3. Conclusions Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. This may have implications for prevention. Feb Alcohol Alcohol. Ethyl glucuronide EtG in hair is a proposed biomarker for alcohol consumption.
This study compares hair EtG concentrations with self-reported alcohol consumption data, in individuals with a range of alcohol use. Hair was collected from participants with a range of alcohol use. Participants were categorized into one of the four groups: EtG was detected in 29 out of hair samples.
EtG sensitivity was highest for high-risk drinkers consuming more than 50 units a week , identified to be 0. A positive result is highly likely to indicate any drinking positive predictive value, 1. A negative result does not provide good evidence for abstinence negative predictive value, 0.
EtG has been identified to be a low sensitivity marker that cannot be used quantitatively to determine alcohol exposure. EtG can be used qualitatively to indicate alcohol consumption with a positive result providing strong evidence for an individual drinking within the past 3 months.
A review of biological indicators of illicit drug use, practical considerations and clinical usefulness. To examine a range of biological indicators of illicit drug use, including blood, urine, hair and saliva, addressing both technological and practical issues relating to their application and interpretation. The review process involved an examination of key reference texts and literature from the scientific fields of analytical and clinical toxicology.
Urine remains the biological tool of choice for qualitative detection of illicit drug use in a clinical setting, while quantitative accuracy remains strictly the domain of blood.
The growing sophistication of laboratory analysis may additionally make possible the routine use of hair sampling which can provide a much longer time frame for assessment. Breath, saliva, sweat or breast milk remain possibilities in the future. Accurate interpretation of the screening tests within a clinical setting alongside other relevant information remains the key to the usefulness of any test.
Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: Oct Br J Psychiatr. Street cannabis is known to contain varying levels of each cannabinoid. To study how the varying levels of cannabidiol and THC have an impact on the acute effects of the drug in naturalistic settings. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of cannabis as well as saliva was collected from each user and analysed for levels of cannabinoids.
On the basis of highest and lowest cannabidiol content of cannabis, two groups of individuals were directly compared. Groups did not differ in the THC content of the cannabis they smoked.
Unlike the marked impairment in prose recall of individuals who smoked cannabis low in cannabidiol, participants smoking cannabis high in cannabidiol showed no memory impairment.
Cannabidiol content did not affect psychotomimetic symptoms, which were elevated in both groups when intoxicated. The antagonistic effects of cannabidiol at the CB 1 receptor are probably responsible for its profile in smoked cannabis, attenuating the memory-impairing effects of THC. In terms of harm reduction, users should be made aware of the higher risk of memory impairment associated with smoking low-cannabidiol strains of cannabis like 'skunk' and encouraged to use strains containing higher levels of cannabidiol.
Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure. Generally, urinary norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol THCCOOH after alkaline hydrolysis is monitored to detect cannabis exposure, although last use may have been weeks prior in chronic cannabis users. Monitor urinary cannabinoid excretion in 33 chronic cannabis smokers who resided on a secure research unit under 24h continuous medical surveillance.
All urine specimens were collected individually ad libidum for up to 30 days, were hydrolyzed with a tandem E. Extended excretion of THC and OH-THC in chronic cannabis users' urine was observed during monitored abstinence; 14 of 33 participants had measurable THC in specimens collected at least 24h after abstinence initiation.
Seven subjects had measurable THC in urine for 3, 3, 4, 7, 7, 12, and 24 days after cannabis cessation. For the first time, extended urinary excretion of THC and OH-THC is documented for at least 24 days, negating their effectiveness as biomarkers of recent cannabis exposure, and substantiating long terminal elimination times for urinary cannabinoids following chronic cannabis smoking.
In the two subjects with detectable plasma levels during 4 weeks, half-lives of 9. To interpret the results of hair analysis tests accurately and to understand the appropriate role of hair analysis in drug abuse testing, a basic understanding of the biology of hair is necessary.
Although hair may appear to be a simple structure, it is actually a complex part of the anatomy whose biology is only partially understood. Hair grows from small organs follicles located within the complex microenvironment of the skin which has multiple layers of tissue, three glands whose secretions bathe hair, and multiple vascular systems which are capable of transferring drugs to hair at many levels along the length of the hair shaft.
The advantages and disadvantages of using scalp, beard, or pubic hair as specimens for hair analysis are also considered. Potential problems with the interpretation of hair analysis results. Furthermore, as drug incorporation mechanisms into hair matrix is not yet fully understood, it is rather difficult to extrapolate details on time and dose from hair segment analysis. For evaluating possible passive contamination, it is essential to consider specific identification of metabolites, use of metabolite-to-parent drug ratios, assays of decontamination washes and analysis of specimens collected from other body parts.
Cosmetic hair treatment, natural and artificial hair colour, differences in hair structure and specificity of analytical methodology may represent other bias sources affecting concentrations of drugs in hair.
A suitable cut-off level related to the LOD will allow correct identification of drugs or metabolites in hair. Regarding the performance of different hair testing laboratories, little information is available at this time to what extent test results are comparable and their interpretation is consistent.
Frequency of drug consumption and time intervals between multiple consumption or lag time between consumption and appearance in the hair has not been fully investigated and needs further research. An overview of the use of urine, hair, sweat and saliva to detect drug use. This paper provides a brief overview of qualitative drug testing procedures using urine, hair, saliva and sweat specimens.
Issues related to collection, analysis and interpretation of each specimen as well as their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The biological detection of drug use involves a screening test which, if positive, is followed by a confirmatory test. Urine is the most widely used specimen in the detection of drugs.
Urinalysis offers an intermediate window of detection days. Saliva analysis may be useful in determining very recent drug use hours. The analysis of sweat may be useful for continuous monitoring of drug use days.
Drug testing has become a fast, convenient process with the development of point-of-collection drug testing devices. Most researchers use their institutional email address as their ResearchGate login. Keep me logged in.
Cannabinoid Concentrations in Hair from Documented Cannabis Users
Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double. Positive detection of cannabinoids in hair has been documented in several studies 10, 11, 12, Skopp et al. 14 provide the only study in. To use the cannabinoid example, our screening cutoff level for the cannabinoid drug class in a hair specimen is 1 pg/mg. If any of the hundreds.