Gielen, and Klaus F. Zimmermann. Print publication date: Print ISBN Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January This chapter offers some concluding thoughts on the methods explored in this book, and on future developments. All the methods have something old and. This chapter summarizes the principal empirical findings that provide support for the theory of relative advantage as a comprehensive explanation for the.
Rather, they are essential threads of what could and should be a rich and robust tapestry of learning. To use another analogy, in Jewish education, we tend to be like the blind men exploring different parts of that proverbial elephant and proclaiming our part as the whole. Instead, I propose that we look at the whole elephant in the room, another proverbial elephant we know has always been there but we try not to talk about—that there is no more worthy goal of Jewish learning than more and better Jewish learning.
To build toward this claim, I offer as conceptual building blocks three insights gleaned from the various articles in this issue. By weaving together the viewpoints of the various authors, I hope to make visible the whole, and perhaps disquieting, elephant that is Jewish education, whose means is its own end.
Jewish education is a dialogue between text and experience. Yet I have come to wonder, how do we come to understand what is a Jewish value except through text study? One example from my teacher, Rabbi Yitz Greenberg: It has rightfully come to be seen as a core Jewish value. Yet, what does it mean for all of us to be created in the image of God? What does this imply for how we act toward one another? The first question can only be answered if we look to our sacred texts.
The second question What does this imply for how we act toward one another? We bring the texts to life by filling in the spaces with our own experience, and we give meaning to our lives by interpreting our experiences through the stories, metaphors, and tropes of Jewish text. Jewish education fosters ethical relations among learners. But, the only way for that relationship to become truly sustainable and long-term is to really develop a deep knowledge of the other.
Like falling in love, learning demands not only a dialogue between text and individual experience, but also between learners where they come to deeply understand and value one another. To engage in the dialogue of meaningful and lifelong Jewish learning, one needs to learn and commit to certain values and competencies.
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Ellstrand reminded the group that many things have changed since Paul Berg organized the Asilomar Conference in to discuss the safety of the then still-nascent field of biotechnol- ogy. Ellstrand emphasized that genetically engineered crops are now here to stay, with many other products on the horizon; at the same time, scientific-based concerns about transgenes, and particularly their impacts, are recognized as important to examine.
Tabashnik showed snapshots he had taken during the course of the workshop and encouraged participants to foster their new acquain- tances into friendships and research collaborations, a theme echoed by Kapuscinski. She emphasized the long-term benefits of the collegial and collaborative atmosphere of the workshop, as scientists from differ- ent fields worked together in the breakout groups to develop research proposals.
In the final discussion session, participants were asked to identify take-away messages in addition to the priority research areas and propos- als to study the effects of GE crops, trees, microbes, insects, and fish on Thoughts from the final session, and other issues related to considerations for ecological research on GEOs raised earlier in the meet- ing, are summarized below.
These do not represent the consensus of the group, but reflect the diversity of issues that arose during the workshop. Many participants identi- fied large-scale, organized collaborative projects that support different research objectives, including those on GEOs, as perhaps the only way to design and fund the scale of analysis needed.
Studies on a large ecological scale can take advantage of emerging remote sensing technologies that improve traditional methods of observation. The size and magnitude of the effects of GEOs may be determined by the system in which they are used, and that system for example, row-crop agriculture may itself have much larger impacts on the environment than the isolated effects of GEOs.
It will be easier to detect subtle ecological effects if the contrast between comparative systems is sharp. The establishment of baseline states e. Models have limitations, of course, and need to be modi- fied as experimental data becomes available. Nevertheless, models can identify where the most critical data needs exist, where effects are most likely to be observed, and the appropriate end points for studies looking for meaningful effects.
Models can be used to envision scenarios such as the effects of multiple introductions on the ability of a species to estab-. However, giving significant thought about which traits, species, and ecological sites to study will make a difference in utility and relevance of the research for evaluating GEOs. Organisms with neutral traits may be easier to release but whether the research will be applicable to a GEO may not be clear.
Another way of learning by proxy is to use escapes and degregulated approved introductions of GEOs as a focal point for research. That research would be enabled by better mapping of the locations of releases of GEOs and the collection of baseline data before planned introductions.
'The flight from beauty' argues that, whereas fin-de-siècle culture continued to believe in beauty, while focusing on all the reasons for doubting that beauty is. We are reaching the end of our journey into risk culture. It remains in this chapter to summarize some of the key takeaways from the book in order to reinforce the. Concluding Thoughts If you assume that all training sessions should begin and end at specific times, you will have difficulty using these two powerful methods.