Opinionista • Ivo Vegter • 31 January “Cannabis cures cancer,” declares the Cannabis Oil SA website, registered to Canna-Health of Johannesburg. As soon as Rick Simpson, one of the greatest medical marijuana activists and man who cured more than 5, people with hemp oil, heard. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients.
cure man book with oil ivo stage cancer cbd
I thought well what can I lose? So, I took prepared oil of cannabis out of my cabinet and poured a few drops directly on the wound - recalls Rick.
According to his own testimony, he did not feel that anything "epochal" had happened. So he put back the bandages into place over the wounds and waited a few days. The wound was gone, and my skin was pink! I started telling people that I had cured the skin cancer with hemp oil, but every single one of them laughed at me And eleven and a half years later here I am, alive and well without cancer - explains Rick with a wide smile on his face.
Among the thousands of incredible stories about people that Simpson has cured , he stands out the last one, about the year-old man who had a lung cancer and practically was on his deathbed. After the doctor's prognosis that he will live no more then 48 hours , he was brought to me by his son.
Since I recommended him to begin treatment with hemp oil , the young man went to father's doctor who, of course, refused to treat his patient like that. After that he took the oil from me, soak it on a little cracker and gave it to his father - says Rick. In just half an hour, before the eyes of shocked relatives who had already gathered around the old man's bed in order to "follow" him on the "other side" , he began to breathe normally and then during the night his vital functions drastically improved.
The same morning young man signed out his father from the hospital , and forbade him to take all 24 prescribed drugs! After six weeks of treatment with hemp oil he needed no insulin, and after three months he was completely cured - Rick says, stressing that there is no age limit in using hemp oil.
Due to the fact that Rick needed a material for his medicine, he soon began to grow marijuana. The police raided his home four times in three years, and Canadian adds that in North America, those who publicly claim that they can cure cancer can face a prison sentence of five to 40 years! Simpson was in prison for only four days , but as he puts it, it was easier for him to face the prison then to face the trial in in Canada , where he was charged of a marijuana possession and cultivation.
Rick "pulled through" with a fine of 2, dollars even though at one point he was threatened with the punishment of 12 years in prison! Even the judge knew it was all a farce! At one point he even said that instead of judging me, he should be rewarding me!
Everyone knew and no one could do anything about it! They didn't even allow ten patients I cured from cancer to testify! Sativa from ancient herbal works and modern data analysis.
Through the herbal textual research, the plant of the C. People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. Since Taohongjing realized the toxicity ofpericarp, all the herbal and prescription works indicate that the pericarp shall be removed before usage and only the kernel can be used. However, in modem literatures, both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part.
The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical. The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern. And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel. The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. The management of chronic pain is a complex challenge worldwide. Cannabis-based medicines CBMs have proven to be efficient in reducing chronic pain, although the topic remains highly controversial in this field.
This study's aim is to conduct a conclusive review and meta-analysis, which incorporates all randomized controlled trials RCTs in order to update clinicians' and researchers' knowledge regarding the efficacy and adverse events AEs of CBMs for chronic and postoperative pain treatment.
A systematic review and meta-analysis. A follow-up manual search was conducted and included a complete cross-check of the relevant studies. Hedges's g scores were calculated for each of the studies. A study quality assessment was performed utilizing the Jadad scale. The results of 43 RCTs a total of 2, patients were included in this review, of which 24 RCTs a total of 1, patients were eligible for meta-analysis.
This analysis showed limited evidence showing more pain reduction in chronic pain This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field.
Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health.
Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use. This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of 'health'.
The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary's failure to engage with an individual's human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns.
Medical use of cannabis: The use of cannabis for medical purposes, evident throughout history, has become a topic of increasing interest. Yet on the present medical evidence, cannabis-based treatments will only be appropriate for a small number of people in specific circumstances. Experience with cannabis as a recreational drug, and with use of psychoactive drugs that are prescribed and abused, should inform harm reduction in the context of medical cannabis. Attitudes of Irish patients with chronic pain towards medicinal cannabis.
Medicinal cannabis use is topical in the media in Ireland. A recent Health Products Regulatory Authority review, however, has recommended against its use for patients with chronic pain.
This is despite evidence for its effectiveness in this patient's cohort and the inadequate pain management of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Irish patients with chronic pain towards medicinal cannabis.
After institutional ethics committee approval, a item questionnaire excluding demographics was randomly assigned to patients attending a chronic pain clinic University Hospital Limerick. The questionnaire was designed to incorporate patient's attitudes on a variety of medicinal cannabis related topics. Ninety-six adult patients were surveyed. The study highlights the attitudes of chronic pain patients in Ireland towards medicinal cannabis. It shows their desire to have medical cannabis legalised for chronic pain and that they view it as a reasonable pain management option.
In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions.
Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles.
In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied.
The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis , but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated. Therapeutic potential of cannabis in pain medicine. Advances in cannabis research have paralleled developments in opioid pharmacology whereby a psychoactive plant extract has elucidated novel endogenous signalling systems with therapeutic significance.
Cannabinoids CBs are chemical compounds derived from cannabis. CB signalling occurs via G-protein-coupled receptors distributed throughout the body.
Endocannabinoids are derivatives of arachidonic acid that function in diverse physiological systems. Neuronal CB 1 Rs modulate synaptic transmission and mediate psychoactivity. Immune-cell CB 2 receptors CB 2 R may down-regulate neuroinflammation and influence cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways.
Animal models demonstrate that CBRs play a fundamental role in peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal nociception and that CBs are effective analgesics. Clinical trials of CBs in multiple sclerosis have suggested a benefit in neuropathic pain. However, human studies of CB-mediated analgesia have been limited by study size, heterogeneous patient populations, and subjective outcome measures.
Furthermore, CBs have variable pharmacokinetics and can manifest psychotropism. They are currently licensed as antiemetics in chemotherapy and can be prescribed on a named-patient basis for neuropathic pain. Future selective peripheral CB 1 R and CB 2 R agonists will minimize central psychoactivity and may synergize opioid anti-nociception.
This review discusses the basic science and clinical aspects of CB pharmacology with a focus on pain medicine. Background Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world.
With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal—known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions.
Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted.
All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Results Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.
Discussion This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective.
There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which. Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit.
Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis ; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted.
Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective.
Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future policies for the. This editorial reviews medicinal cannabis litigation in Canada's superior courts between and It reflects upon the outcomes of the decisions and the reasoning within them. It identifies the issues that have driven Canada's jurisprudence in relation to access to medicinal cannabis , particularly insofar as it has engaged patients' rights to liberty and security of the person.
It argues that the sequence of medicinal schemes adopted and refined in Canada provides constructive guidance for countries such as Australia which are contemplating introduction of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic option in compassionate circumstances for patients. In particular, it contends that Canada's experience suggests that strategies calculated to introduce such schemes in a gradualist way, enabling informed involvement by medical practitioners and pharmacists, and that provide for safe and inexpensive accessibility to forms of medicinal cannabis that are clearly distinguished from recreational use and unlikely to be diverted criminally maximise the chances of such schemes being accepted by key stakeholders.
The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands. A growing number of countries are providing pharmaceutical grade cannabis to chronically ill patients. However, little published data is known about the extent of medicinal cannabis use and the characteristics of patients using cannabis on doctor's prescription. This study describes a retrospective database study of The Netherlands. Complete dispensing histories were obtained of all patients with at least one medicinal cannabis prescription gathered at pharmacies in The Netherlands in the period Data revealed prevalence and incidence of use of prescription cannabis as well as characteristics of patients using different cannabis varieties.
Five thousand five hundred forty patients were identified. The prevalence rate ranged from 5 to 8 per , inhabitants. This is the first nationwide study into the extent of prescription of medicinal cannabis. Although the cannabis varieties studied are believed to possess different therapeutic effects based on their different content of tetrahydrocannabinol THC and cannabidiol CBD , no differences in choice of variety was found associated with indication.
Making medicine ; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia. Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes.
However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of ' medicinal cannabis ' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of ' medicinal cannabis ' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of ' medicinal cannabis ' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure.
As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis.
Through analysis of this case example, we find that although ' medicinal cannabis ' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object so-called 'recreational cannabis ' and the social and political meanings attached to both.
Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, ' medicinal cannabis ' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis ' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of ' medicinal cannabis ' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure.
As such, the making of ' medicinal cannabis ' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use.
Risks associated with the non- medicinal use of cannabis. Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug around the world; in Germany, about 4. Intense cannabis use is associated with health risks. Evidence- based treatments are available for health problems caused by cannabis use. Selective literature review based on a search of the PubMed database, with special emphasis on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials RCTs , case-control studies, and treatment guidelines.
The deltatetrahydrocannabinol content of cannabis products is rising around the world as a result of plant breeding, while cannabidiol, in contrast, is often no longer detectable. Various medical conditions can arise acutely after cannabis use, depending on the user's age, dose, frequency, mode and situation of use, and individual disposition; these include panic attacks, psychotic symptoms, deficient attention, impaired concentration, motor incoordination, and nausea.
In particular, intense use of high doses of cannabis over many years, and the initiation of cannabis use in adolescence, can be associated with substance dependence DSM-5; ICD , specific withdrawal symptoms, cognitive impairment, affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders, and physical disease outside the brain mainly respiratory and cardiovascular conditions.
At present, the most effective way to treat cannabis dependence involves a combination of motivational encouragement, cognitive behavioral therapy, and contingency management level 1a evidence. For adolescents, family therapy is also recommended level 1a evidence. No pharmacological treatments can be recommended to date, as evidence for their efficacy is lacking.
Further research is needed to elucidate the causal relationships between intense cannabis use and potential damage to physical and mental health. Health problems due to cannabis use can be effectively treated.
Medicinal cannabis Bedrolite substitution therapy in inpatients with a psychotic disorder and a comorbid cannabis use disorder: Cannabis use disorders are frequently comorbid in patients with a psychotic disorder and are associated with worse outcomes.
To date there are no proven effective strategies to achieve cannabis abstinence in this population. An alternative for abstinence might be harm reduction, i. Here we present the data of a case series with seven inpatients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and a treatment-resistant cannabis use disorder who received substitution therapy with a low tetrahydrocannabinol medicinal cannabis variant Bedrolite.
The results suggest that the low tetrahydrocannabinol medicinal cannabis variant Bedrolite is not effective in the treatment of inpatients with a psychotic disorder and comorbid cannabis use disorder. Bedrolite is thus not very likely to become an effective harm reduction strategy in these patients. Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies.
However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis. The endogenous cannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target to modify neurodegenerative pathways linked to Alzheimer's disease AD.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the specific contribution of CB2 receptor to the progression of AD-like pathology and its role in the positive effect of a cannabis-based medicine 1: Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on patients. The objective was to determine whether a cannabis-based medicinal extract CBME benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis MS.
A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue.
There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild. This study evaluated the quality of Web- based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators.
Three keywords " cannabis addiction," " cannabis dependence," and " cannabis abuse" were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…. Limited use of medicinal cannabis but for labeled indications after legalization. Since September , cannabis is available for medicinal purposes in Dutch pharmacies to. It was anticipated that the medicinal cannabis use via illegal ways would decrease.
The objective of this study was to get insight in the use of medicinal cannabis in daily practise as dispensed by community pharmacies and to characterize the users as well as the symptoms and conditions cannabis is prescribed for.
A prospective follow-up study among patients who filled a prescription for medicinal cannabis was performed in the period between September and January The patients filled out a structured questionnaire concerning symptoms and conditions and their experience with cannabis.
The indication of medicinal cannabis use was in accordance with the labeled indications. Because of the higher prices in pharmacies, ongoing debate on the unproven effectiveness of the drug and the hesitation by physicians to prescribe cannabis. A review of the cultivation and processing of cannabis Cannabis sativa L. The quality demands of the pharmaceutical industry require prescription medicines to be consistent in their active ingredient content.
Achieving this, using raw cannabis as a feedstock, is especially challenging. The plant material is extremely inhomogeneous, and the ratios of active ingredients are affected by a range of factors. These include the genetics of the plant, the growing and storage conditions, the state of maturity at harvest, and the methods used to process and formulate the material. The reasons for this variability are described, with particular emphasis on the botanical considerations.
This medicine , for the treatment of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, is the first cannabis-based medicine to be approved in the UK. The company's methodology for producing this and other chemotypes is described. Lessons from Multiple Sclerosis. Cannabis-based medicines CBMs may offer relief from symptoms of disease; however, their additional cost needs to be considered alongside their effectiveness. We sought to review the economic costs and benefits of prescribed CBMs in any chronic illness, and the frameworks used for their economic evaluation.
A systematic review of eight medical and economic databases, from inception to mid-December , was undertaken. Study quality was assessed using relevant checklists and results were synthesised in narrative form. Of identified records, ten studies met the eligibility criteria, all for the management of multiple sclerosis MS. Six contained economic evaluations, four studies reported utility- based quality of life, and one was a willingness-to-pay study.
Four of five industry-sponsored cost-utility analyses for MS spasticity reported nabiximols as being cost-effective from a European health system perspective. Nabiximols for the management of MS spasticity was not associated with statistically significant improvements in EQ-5D scores compared with standard care.
Study quality was moderate overall, with limited inclusion of both relevant societal costs and discussions of potential bias. Prescribed CBMs are a potentially cost-effective add-on treatment for MS spasticity; however, this evidence is uncertain. Further investment in randomised trials with in-built economic evaluations is warranted for a wider range of clinical indications.
Parent use of cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: Everyday empiricism and the boundaries of scientific medicine. Cannabis is an increasingly sought-after remedy for US children with intractable biomedically uncontrollable epilepsy. However, like other complementary-alternative medicine CAM modalities, and particularly as a federally illegal, stigmatized substance, it is unsanctioned by mainstream medicine. Parents are largely on their own when it comes to learning about, procuring, dispensing, and monitoring treatments.
Exploring how they manage is crucial to better assist them. Moreover, it can illuminate how 'research' done on the ground by laypeople variously disrupts and reinforces lay-expert and science-non-science divides.
Parents generally described their work as experimentation; they saw their efforts as adhering to authorized scientific practices and standards, and as contributing to the authorized medical cannabis knowledge base. Findings subverted assumptions, based on an outdated stereotype of CAM, that cannabis -using parents do not believe in biomedicine.
Indeed, parents' desire for their children's biomedical demarginalization, combined with biomedical dependency and a high caregiver burden, fueled a collaborative stance. Implications for understanding the boundaries of science are explored, as are norms for parent agency as ill children's care managers, radicalization among people affected by contested illnesses, and the future of 'medical marijuana.
Over 20 states now approve medical marijuana for a long list of "indications," and more states may well offer access in the near future. Whether or not they are in the position to prescribe medical cannabis , pain physicians would seem to have an obligation to understand and inform their patients on key issues of the evidence base on cannabinoid therapeutics.
Profiles of medicinal cannabis patients attending compassion centers in rhode island. Little is understood regarding medicinal marijuana dispensary users. We sought to characterize socio-demographics and reasons for medicinal marijuana use among medical cannabis dispensary patients in Rhode Island.
The most common reason for medicinal marijuana use was determined to be chronic pain management. One-fifth of participants had a history of a drug or alcohol use disorder. Most participants report that medicinal cannabis improves their pain symptomology, and are interested in alternative treatment options to opioid- based treatment regimens. The authors review the historical use of medicinal cannabis and discuss the agent's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, select evidence on medicinal uses, and the implications of evolving regulations on the acute care hospital setting.
Cannabis species and cannabinoid concentration preference among sleep-disturbed medicinal cannabis users. Individuals report using cannabis for the promotion of sleep, and the effects of cannabis on sleep may vary by cannabis species. Little research has documented preferences for particular cannabis types or cannabinoid concentrations as a function of use for sleep disturbances.
They provided self-report of a whether cannabis use was intended to help with sleep problems e. Controlled prospective studies are needed to better characterize the impact that specific components of cannabis have on sleep. Published by Elsevier Ltd. The medical necessity for medicinal cannabis: Cancer patients using cannabis report better influence from the plant extract than from synthetic products. However, almost all the research conducted to date has been performed with synthetic products.
We followed patients with a medicinal cannabis license to evaluate the advantages and side effects of using cannabis by cancer patients.
The study included two interviews based on questionnaires regarding symptoms and side effects, the first held on the day the license was issued and the second weeks later.
The distress thermometer was used also. Of the patients who had a first interview, only had the second interview, 25 of whom stopped treatment after less than a week. The positive effects of cannabis on various cancer-related symptoms are tempered by reliance on self-reporting for many of the variables.
Although studies with a control group are missing, the improvement in symptoms should push the use of cannabis in palliative treatment of oncology patients. The Medical Necessity for Medicinal Cannabis: The study included two interviews based on questionnaires regarding symptoms and side effects, the first held on the day the license was issued and the second 6—8 weeks later.
Medicinal Cannabis in California: Grant is a neuropsychiatrist who graduated from the University of British Columbia School of Medicine , and received specialty training in psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania , and additional training in neurology at the Institute of Neurology , London, U. Grant's academic interests focus on the effects of various diseases on brain and behavior, with an emphasis on translational studies in HIV, and drugs of abuse.
The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids--an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. Cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, are the most important active constituents of the cannabis plant.
Over recent years, cannabinoid- based medicines CBMs have become increasingly available to patients in many countries, both as pharmaceutical products and as herbal cannabis marijuana. While there seems to be a demand for multiple cannabinoid- based therapeutic products, specifically for symptomatic amelioration in chronic diseases, therapeutic effects of different CBMs have only been directly compared in a few clinical studies.
The survey presented here was performed by the International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines IACM , and is meant to contribute to the understanding of cannabinoid- based medicine by asking patients who used cannabis or cannabinoids detailed questions about their experiences with different methods of intake. The survey was completed by participants from 31 countries, making this the largest international survey on a wide variety of users of cannabinoid- based medicine performed so far.
In general, herbal non-pharmaceutical CBMs received higher appreciation scores by participants than pharmaceutical products containing cannabinoids. However, the number of patients who reported experience with pharmaceutical products was low, limiting conclusions on preferences. Nevertheless, the reported data may be useful for further development of safe and effective medications based on cannabis and single cannabinoids.
Cannabis use in people with Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis: A web- based investigation. Cannabis has been used for medicinal purpose for thousands of years; however the positive and negative effects of cannabis use in Parkinson's disease PD and Multiple Sclerosis MS are mostly unknown. Our aim was to assess cannabis use in PD and MS and compare results of self-reported assessments of neurological disability between current cannabis users and non-users.
An anonymous web- based survey was hosted on the Michael J. The survey collected demographic and cannabis use information, and used standardized questionnaires to assess neurological function, fatigue, balance, and physical activity participation.
Analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used for the analysis. The survey was viewed times, and participants were in the final data set. Current users reported high efficacy of cannabis , 6.
Current cannabis users were younger and less likely to be classified as obese P Cannabis users reported lower levels of disability, specifically in domains of mood, memory, and fatigue P Cannabis may have positive impacts on mood, memory, fatigue, and obesity status in people with PD and MS. Further studies using clinically and longitudinally assessed measurements of these domains are needed to establish if these associations are causal and determine the long-term benefits and consequences of cannabis use in people with PD and MS.
Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: Cannabis marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history.
Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in , against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis , with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine , and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development.
The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems. The field of pain medicine is at a crossroads given the epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths from prescription opioids. Cannabis and its active ingredients, cannabinoids, are a much safer therapeutic option.
Despite being slowed by legal restrictions and stigma, research continues to show that when used appropriately, cannabis is safe and effective for many forms of chronic pain and other conditions, and has no overdose levels. Current literature indicates many chronic pain patients could be treated with cannabis alone or with lower doses of opioids. To make progress, cannabis needs to be re-branded as a legitimate medicine and rescheduled to a more pharmacologically justifiable class of compounds.
This paper discusses the data supporting re-branding and rescheduling of cannabis. Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel. To date, data regarding the potential of cannabinoids to modulate cytochrome P isozyme 3A CYP3A activity are contradictory.
Recently, a standardized medicinal cannabis product was introduced in The Netherlands. We anticipated an increased use of medicinal cannabis concurrent with anticancer drugs, and undertook a drug-interaction study to evaluate the effect of concomitant medicinal cannabis on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel, both subject to CYP3A-mediated biotransformation.
Twenty-four cancer patients were treated with i. Blood samples were obtained up to 55 hours after dosing and analyzed for irinotecan and its metabolites SN, SNG , respectively, or docetaxel.
Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed during both treatments. Medicinal cannabis administration did not significantly influence exposure to and clearance of irinotecan 1. Coadministration of medicinal cannabis , as herbal tea, in cancer patients treated with irinotecan or docetaxel does not significantly influence the plasma pharmacokinetics of these drugs.
The evaluated variety of medicinal cannabis can be administered concomitantly with both anticancer agents without dose adjustments. Medicinal versus recreational cannabis use: Patterns of cannabis use, alcohol use, and cued-arousal among veterans who screen positive for PTSD. The present study is the first to test whether veterans who use cannabis specifically for the purposes of self-medication for their reported PTSD symptoms differ from veterans who use cannabis medicinally for other reasons, or recreationally, in terms of patterns of cannabis use, use of alcohol, and reactivity to written combat trauma reminders.
Hypotheses were tested using a series of Bonferroni corrected one-way analyses of variance, t-tests, bivariate and partial correlations, and a Chi-square test.
Few differences were observed between medicinal users who reported using for PTSD versus those who reported using for other reasons. Compared to those who use cannabis recreationally, veterans who report that they use cannabis medicinally use more cannabis and endorse significantly more symptoms of arousal following a prompt about combat trauma experiences. To explore the characteristics of medicinal and non- medicinal cannabis users, and the conditions that were treated with cannabis.
Participants self-reported cannabis use and were put into groups: Prevalence was reported for the major demographic subgroups; sex, age and ethnicity. Regression models were then used to find associations between demographic characteristics and cannabis use for groups 3 and 4. About five percent 4. This use was associated with being male, younger, less well-educated and relatively poor. Reported medicinal use was associated with reported conditions that were typically hard to manage: Medicinal users were more likely to report chronic pain and pain interfering, moderately or more, with housework and other work.
Quality of web- based information on cannabis addiction. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability, and content quality. Of the 94 Websites identified, 57 were included. Most were commercial sites.
Based on outcome measures, the overall quality of the sites turned out to be poor. A global score the sum of accountability, interactivity, content quality and esthetic criteria appeared as a good content quality indicator. While cannabis education Websites for patients are widespread, their global quality is poor. There is a need for better evidence- based information about cannabis use and addiction on the Web. Addiction and the pharmacology of cannabis: The topic of drug addiction or misuse of drugs has numerous far-reaching ramifications into areas such as neuroscience, medicine and therapeutics, toxicology, epidemiology, national and international economics and politics, and the law.
The general principles of drug addiction are first summarised. A recurring and intrinsic problem is lack of adequate characterisation of the independent variable, namely the drug taken. Secondly, it is not feasible to allocate subjects randomly to treatments.
Thirdly, the heterogeneity of different forms of addiction precludes facile generalisations. Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants whose products are used as recreational drugs. Claims have been made for a range of therapeutic properties. These compounds have contrasting pharmacological properties. THC is suspected of causing psychotic phenomena, but CBD seems more sedative and may even be antipsychotic.
Suggestions are made for further research into the pharmacology and toxicology of CBD. Such data may also point to a more rational evidence- based approach to the legal control of cannabis preparations.
Is cannabis an illicit drug or a medicine? A quantitative framing analysis of Israeli newspaper coverage. Various countries and states, including Israel, have recently legalized cannabis for therapeutic purposes CTP. These changes have received mass media coverage and prompted national and international dialogue about the status of cannabis and whether or not it can be defined as a legitimate medicine , illicit and harmful drug, or both.
News media framing may influence, and be influenced by, public opinion regarding CTP and support for CTP license provisions for patients. This study examines the framing of CTP in Israeli media coverage and the association between media coverage and trends in the provision of CTP licenses in Israel over time.
Articles were published between January and June , a period in which CTP licenses granted by the Ministry of Health increased substantially. The relative proportion of news items in which cannabis was framed as an illicit drug fluctuated during the study period, but was unrelated to linear or curvilinear trends in CTP licensing. The relatively large proportion of news items framing cannabis as a medicine is consistent with growing support for the expansion of the Israel's CTP program.
Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort. Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis.
Via electronic survey in medicinal cannabis patients with headache, arthritis, and chronic pain, demographics and patterns of cannabis use including methods, frequency, quantity, preferred strains, cannabinoid and terpene profiles, and prescription substitutions were recorded.
Of patients, 21 illnesses were treated with cannabis. Pain syndromes accounted for Across all 21 illnesses, headache was a symptom treated with cannabis in Many pain patients substituted prescription medications with cannabis Chronic pain was the most common reason for cannabis use, consistent with most registries. The majority of headache. However, interest in medicinal cannabis has certainly not waned since. The result of this is that doctors and patients now assume that this is a medication for which the efficacy and safety have been established.
There was no significant effect of treatment on the primary outcome measure, i. Nevertheless, it was concluded that the mobility was improved and that the pain was subjectively decreased.
Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes CTP and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma.
Methods Twenty-three individuals who were using CTP for a range of health problems took part in semi-structured interviews. Results Participant experiences of stigma were related to negative views of cannabis as a recreational drug, the current criminal sanctions associated with cannabis use, and using cannabis in the context of stigmatizing vulnerability related to existing illness and disability.
Strategies for managing the resulting stigma of using CTP included: Conclusions Understanding how individuals perceive and respond to stigma can inform the development of strategies aimed at reducing stigma associated with the use of CTP and thereby address barriers faced by those using this medicine.
Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis , and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research.
Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine.
Medicinal use of cannabis: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids. The literature on therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids was assessed with respect to type of study design, quality and variability of data, independent replications by the same or other investigators, magnitude of effects, comparison with other available treatments and reported adverse effects.
The results of this review were also compared with those of major international reviews of this topic in the past five years. Pure tetrahydrocannabinol and several analogues have shown significant therapeutic benefits in the relief of nausea and vomiting, and stimulation of appetite in patients with wasting syndrome.
Recent evidence clearly demonstrates analgesic and anti-spasticity effects that will probably prove to be clinically useful. Reduction of intraocular pressure in glaucoma and bronchodilation in asthma are not sufficiently strong, long lasting or reliable to provide a valid basis for therapeutic use.
The anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol is sufficiently promising to warrant further properly designed clinical trials. There is still a major lack of long term pharmacokinetic data and information on drug interactions. For all the present and probable future uses, pure cannabinoids, administered orally, rectally or parenterally, have been shown to be effective, and they are free of the risks of chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and upper respiratory cancer that are associated with the smoking of crude cannabis.
Smoking might be justified on compassionate grounds in terminally ill patients who are already accustomed to using cannabis in this manner. Future research will probably yield new synthetic analogues with better separation of therapeutic effects from undesired psychoactivity and other side effects, and with solubility properties that. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar. The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal -grade Cannabis.
An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types.
Although more than different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches.
For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis PCA of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups.
The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.
To examine how cannabis use and polysubstance use among cannabis users relate to psychosis spectrum PS symptoms in a large community- based sample of U. After adjusting for confounds, cannabis use by itself was not associated with increased odds of being classified as "psychosis spectrum. However, these symptom-level findings were reduced to trends after correction for multiple comparisons.
Neither cannabis use nor polysubstance use was associated with threshold delusions or hallucinations. After adjusting for important confounds, there was minimal evidence for associations between cannabis use by itself and PS symptoms.
More compelling evidence emerged for associations between polysubstance use among cannabis users and PS symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering polysubstance use and confounds when examining associations between cannabis use and PS symptoms. On cannabis , chloral hydrate, and career cycles of psychotropic drugs in medicine. This article compares the careers of two psychotropic drugs in Western psychiatry, with a focus on the nineteenth century: Cannabis indica and chloral hydrate.
They were used by doctors for similar indications, such as mania, delirium tremens, and what we would now call drug dependence. The two show similar career paths consisting of three phases: These cycles, which we term "Seige cycles," are generally typical of the careers of psychotropic drugs in modern medicine. However, differences in the careers of both drugs are also established. The phases of chloral show relatively higher peaks and lower valleys than those of cannabis.
Chloral is the first typically "modern" psychotropic drug; a synthetic, it was introduced in at a time of growing asylum populations, pharmaceutical interests, and high cultural expectations of scientific medicine. Cannabis indica, introduced in the s, is typically a "premodern" drug steeped in the climate of cultural Romanticism.
We conclude that the analytical concept of the Seige cycle is a useful tool for future research into drug careers in medicine. Evidence- based Treatment Options in Cannabis Dependency. Now that the consumption of natural and synthetic cannabinoids is becoming more widespread, the specific treatment of cannabis -related disturbances is an increasingly important matter.
There are many therapeutic options, and it is not always clear which ones are evidence- based and appropriate for use in a given clinical situation. This review is based on reports of pertinent randomized and controlled trials RCTs that were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Systemic multidimensional family therapy MDFT has been found beneficial for younger adolescents who consume large amounts of cannabis and have psychiatric comorbidities.
Short-term interventions with motivational talk therapy have been found effective for patients with or without an initial desire to achieve cannabis abstinence. All of these psychotherapeutic interventions are effective at evidence level Ia.
MPIP: Melanoma Patients Information Page
Medical cannabis: aligning use to evidence-based medicine approach. . of two young German male patients with treatment-resistant Tourette syndrome (TS), . therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer synthetic cannabinoids and the high rate of development of novel structures, we. Generally, cannabinoids containing products are used socially in cancer patients for its orexigenic, analgesic, antitumor, anxiolytic, and. nivolumab (Opdivo) as adjuvant therapy for patients with Cannabis, Lung Cancer, and Therapy of the PACIFIC trial, patients with locally advanced stage III .. Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception conventional clinical trials) and novel pipelines (e.g., real-.