Optimising Medical Cannabis Policy Panel an Australian Labor Party member of the New South Wales Legislative Council since May The Lambert Initiative is advancing medicinal cannabis research for Our aim is to optimise safe and effective cannabinoid therapeutics into mainstream medicine in Australia and beyond to deliver We acknowledge the tradition of custodianship and law of the Country on which the University of Sydney campuses stand. Medicinal Cannabis and the Tyranny of Distance: Policy Reform Required for Optimizing Patient and Health System Net Benefit in Australia Appl Health Econ es3.info# page1.
Medicinal in (Video) Australia Policy Cannabis Optimizing
I just think we should encourage all pharmacists to be part of it and participate in it as they have a responsibility here to dispense these particular products. All participants identified the presence of public stigma associated with medicinal cannabis. Further to that, many proposed that the current illicit status of medicinal cannabis has led to this.
Many participants identified the lack of public awareness, influence of cultural upbringing, age and inability to distinguish between medicinal and recreational cannabis as key factors contributing to public stigma.
It was apparent that most participants drew upon their previous experiences with patients on OST and opioid medicines, and would only be resolved with ongoing public health campaigns and further discussion.
Participants discussed how the media had played a predominant role in creating the awareness about medicinal cannabis whether negative or positive. Some suggested that the power of the media be harnessed for creating informed awareness on the therapeutic evidence behind medicinal cannabis and to dissolve negative stigma and rebuild the image of cannabis in a healthcare setting.
Participants cited recent media attention advocating the medical use of cannabis, as a shift away from conventional views. I think there's more like a push for it to be available. I've seen a lot of stories where it's been beneficial.
While pharmacists acknowledged a lack of extensive understanding about medicinal cannabis, it was deemed no different to any other new drug that enters the market. The majority of participants suggested the need for development of new training courses and learning opportunities, in order to ensure a greater understanding of the effects of medicinal cannabis.
Many participants suggested the development of a collaborative team of healthcare professionals to discuss the implications of legalising medicinal cannabis in order to ensure multidisciplinary care. They need to raise issues that are going to affect them or their profession and considerations need to be made so I think that is very key. Given the global discussion about medicinal cannabis currently, there is a clear need to ensure that the views of all stakeholders involved are explored; particularly that of pharmacists, who have the role of medicine supply.
Our study gathered the opinions of a reasonably heterogeneous sample of pharmacists, including professional leaders, and results indicated that a majority supported the legislation and decriminalisation of medicinal cannabis in order to provide a suitable treatment option to those with refractory and chronic medical conditions. Participating pharmacists described the need for suitable legislative and forensic frameworks that would allow legitimate supply under their scrutiny and recommended several models of supply.
Pharmacists the world over, have demonstrated willingness and capacity for delivering harm minimisation services such as needle exchange programs and OST. Medicinal cannabis may be viewed in the same vein, where legal formulations dispensed with the purview of a trained and knowledgeable professional may be far safer than other means of procurement frustrated patients resort to. Pragmatic models offered by the participants and previous experience with pharmacy-delivered harm minimisation programs should drive future implementation programs for therapeutic cannabis provision.
The perspective of pharmacists should also be probed in health systems considering legalising medicinal cannabis. In contrast to our participants, the expressed opinions of prescribers worldwide have been relatively more sceptical with negative attitudes towards the use of cannabis medicinally.
Our participants did share these common concerns for patient safety but expressed that these are universal for all medicines, and for medicinal cannabis the benefits outweigh the risks primarily when needed to optimise quality of life in conditions recalcitrant to other treatments. As illustrated in our study results, participants acknowledged the importance of continued training and learning in regards to information on medicinal cannabis.
Similar needs for training preceding new program implementation have been expressed by pharmacists for other programs, such as the methadone program offered by pharmacies in many countries.
In a survey conducted by Fleming et al. Pharmacists may not be unique in desiring training prior to supply program implementation. Training is an essential element in implementing novel treatment. In a trial comprising pharmacists and opioid dependent consumers in Victoria, Australia, health policy researchers used seven key pillars to bridge the know-do gap in using buprenorphine for OST [ 27 ]. These pillars included skilled and experienced practitioners, government and policy support, incentives to prescribe the new treatment, specialist support services, clinical guidelines, training programs and patient involvement and information.
Authors propose that this multi-faceted approach propelled the uptake of buprenorphine as maintenance therapy for opioid dependent patients in Victoria [ 27 ]. Our study also identified the need for greater collaboration to enhance transparency and involvement of all stakeholders, including pharmacists. This, along with maintaining open lines of communication may help mitigate errors and ensure improved patient outcomes following the facilitation of medicinal cannabis [ 29 , 30 ].
Successful specialised treatment programs, for example buprenorphine provision, have often utilised inter-professional training for pharmacists and specialist physicians [ 31 , 32 ]. Similar methods need to be applied in the case of medicinal cannabis as well.
A major issue emergent from our study was the need for nationalised legislation to maintain uniform regulatory policies. This view is reflective of international literature that documents the long-running battle between federal and state law.
For reasons of safety and reproducibility, introducing standardized forms of synthetic or extracted cannabinoids supply, although more expensive, rather than extractions of phytocannabinoids in the cannabis sativa plant, would be ideal. However, there are no globally recognised standardized forms or formulations of medicinal cannabis available yet, due to vast variability in constituents from plant to plant. Suggestions also included pharmacovigilance to monitor patient safety, addressing risk of abuse and creating support to reduce prescribing under duress as well as establishing robust support for pharmacy safety.
Such suggestions were drawn from past experiences with OST and the supply of dangerous drugs of addiction. A survey study by Winstock et al. And for pharmacies to supply medicinal cannabis this needs to be specifically addressed.
Stigma was identified as a major barrier that needed to be mitigated in order for medicinal cannabis to be successfully rolled out. The influence of negative stigma on the actual adoption of such medicines and health programs is revealed in various studies.
Comparably our participants described the stigma around medicinal cannabis paralleled that enveloping methadone clients. To shift public opinion, greater awareness and education needs to be implemented, in which clear distinctions between the two uses of cannabis are defined.
All of these themes were triangulated to generate a conceptual framework Fig 1 , which captures the results of the study and showcases socio-political drivers for the legalisation and supply of medicinal cannabis through community pharmacies.
It is a conceptual map of themes emerging from ideas expressed by participants in this study. The four major drivers of change in this particular case were identified as: Addressing Stigma and 4. Some limitations of this study include the diversity of participants interviewed, which were primarily from a community pharmacy setting, and this is not generalizable to the entire pharmacy profession.
Despite interviewing participants from various locations across Australian a broader location sampling would provide more widespread and rigorous results. Video recording of the interviews may have also strengthened the study through paralinguistic analysis of captured non-verbal cues. Findings of this study S1 — S5 Files highlighted the perspective of pharmacists who hold the important role of suppling medicinal cannabis, thereby identifying important factors which can help shape future policies for the successful implementation of medicinal cannabis in healthcare.
We recommend that these views and strategies be incorporated in the development of new policies and legislations. The researchers wish to thank the Australian pharmacists who participated in the study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jan 18; Accepted Apr This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Barrier and Facilitator Quotes. Role of Pharmacist—Collaboration Quotes. Safety—Product Standardisation—Formulation theme Quotes. Abstract Background Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted.
Results Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Discussion This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. Introduction For over years cannabis more commonly known as marijuana, has been used medicinally, recreationally and in religious ceremonies in cultures across the globe [ 1 ].
Table 1 Forms of Cannabinoids, their effects and any registered products 5. Open in a separate window. The legalisation of medicinal cannabis in Australia. Recruitment The sampling strategy involved a convenience sampling of Australian pharmacists.
Design of interview An interview protocol Table 2 was developed based on research literature on medicinal cannabis 4, 16—18 and practice experience of the researching team. Table 2 Interview Protocol. Understanding of legal status? Evidence about its potential for medicinal use? Do you believe it might be beneficial to make medicinal cannabis legal or should it remain illicit? Effect on pharmacy practice? Would you be happy to dispense medicinal cannabis if made available?
Links with its side effects when used illicitly? Is medicinal cannabis in capsule form any different from other medicines? What do you believe pharmacists should be saying in this debate? Role of Pharmacy profession? Results Participant demographics A total of 34 respondents met inclusion criteria and participated in the study.
Role of the Pharmacist The majority of participants expressed agreement that pharmacists would play an essential role in providing legitimate access to medicinal cannabis. Legislation Scheduling The majority of the participants expressed the view that medicinal cannabis would be best introduced as a controlled substance, which under Australian regulation is categorised as a dangerous drug or schedule 8 S8 as opposed to prescription only medicines or schedule 4 S4 drugs [ 23 ].
Nationalisation Some participants stated that the success of implementation of legal medicinal cannabis supply would depend on a nationalised framework. Quality Assurance Participants with a broad knowledge of all the multiple constituents of cannabis stressed a need to have stringent quality assurance protocols.
Access Several avenues for access to medicinal cannabis were proposed. Safety Patient Safety SE A number of participants were concerned about potential long-term effects of medicinal cannabis with risks associated with cognitive impairment and psychosis. Risk of Abuse A few participants perceived the gaps in current regulations and recording systems as an opportunity for abuse and misuse of controlled substances.
Safety of the Pharmacy A level of concern was raised by LRPOs, in regards to safety and security issues for pharmacies. Stigma Public All participants identified the presence of public stigma associated with medicinal cannabis.
Media Participants discussed how the media had played a predominant role in creating the awareness about medicinal cannabis whether negative or positive. Unified Communication Many participants suggested the development of a collaborative team of healthcare professionals to discuss the implications of legalising medicinal cannabis in order to ensure multidisciplinary care. Participants in our study also identified safety as a major area of concern. Limitations Some limitations of this study include the diversity of participants interviewed, which were primarily from a community pharmacy setting, and this is not generalizable to the entire pharmacy profession.
Conclusion Findings of this study S1 — S5 Files highlighted the perspective of pharmacists who hold the important role of suppling medicinal cannabis, thereby identifying important factors which can help shape future policies for the successful implementation of medicinal cannabis in healthcare.
DOCX Click here for additional data file. S2 File Legislation-Regulation theme Quotes. S5 File Stigma theme Quotes.
Acknowledgments The researchers wish to thank the Australian pharmacists who participated in the study. Funding Statement The authors have no support or funding to report. Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. History of cannabis and its preparations in saga, science, and sobriquet.
What Everyone Needs to Know: Oxford University Press; Medicinal cannabis in Australia—Framing the regulatory options Sydney: Drug Policy Modelling Program; Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Am Med Assoc. The Australian National Council on Drugs.
Medicinal use of cannabis: Background and Information Paper. Australian National Council on Drugs; Australian Drug Law Reform Foundation ;1— Questions and Answers USA: US Food and Drug Administration; Annual report of the European Medicines Agency. Department of Health Australia. Victorian Law Reform Commission. Rychert M, Wilkins C. Did we have the wrong debate about Elixinol and medicinal cannabis? The New Zeal Med J. New Zealand doctors should be allowed to prescribe cannabis for pain: J Prim Health Care.
Physician attitudes regarding the prescription of medical marijuana. Isr Med Assoc J. Victorian Department of Human Services. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
National opioid pharmacotherapy statistics Glasier A, Baird D. N Engl J Med. Green J, Thorogood N. One of the fastest growing segments in the cannabis industry is the vape market, which in turn is helping to create new markets for legalised weed. It can then be used to inhale cannabis from oils or herbs. The monitoring and collection software, in turn, gathers and collates data and readings from the vaporiser, which patients and their authorised physicians can then review and evaluate.
For more ASX-listed pot-stocks, check out our definitive guide. The information contained in this article is general information only. Any advice is general advice only. Neither your personal objectives, financial situation nor needs have been taken into consideration. Accordingly you should consider how appropriate the advice if any is to those objectives, financial situation and needs, before acting on the advice. S3 Consortium Pty Ltd does and seeks to do business with companies featured in its articles.
As a result, investors should be aware that the Firm may have a conflict of interest that could affect the objectivity of this article. Investors should consider this article as only a single factor in making any investment decision. The publishers of this article also wish to disclose that they may hold this stock in their portfolios and that any decision to purchase this stock should be done so after the purchaser has made their own inquires as to the validity of any information in this article.
The information contained in this article is current at the finalised date. The information contained in this article is based on sources reasonably considered to be reliable by S3 Consortium Pty Ltd, and available in the public domain.
Mining Energy Biotech Technology Juniors. Keep me posted menu Get our newsletter with exclusive article straight to your inbox.
Published at Jan 18, , in The Report. Here are five ASX pot-stocks that should be on your radar as turns a new leaf. Management discusses these two key technologies in the short video below: Get our newsletter with an exclusive article straight to your inbox. The meaning of life? Farm Out by Year End? October 19th A definitive guide to ASX pot-stocks. Conflict of Interest Notice S3 Consortium Pty Ltd does and seeks to do business with companies featured in its articles.
Publishers Notice The information contained in this article is current at the finalised date.
Put these 5 ASX pot-stocks in your investment pipe for 2019
The global legal weed market is expected to be worth US$ billion by Last year, Australia legalised exports of medicinal cannabis, and there Its two patent -protected technologies, Root Zone Temperature Optimisation Management discusses these two key technologies in the short video below. Related Story: Trailblazing Australian medicinal cannabis firm care, patients' standard medications must be optimised," Dr Chant said. 'Medicinal Cannabis and the Tyranny of Distance: Policy Reform Required for Optimizing Patient and Health System Net Benefit in Australia' to.